Published Date : Jun 14, 2016
Water purification refers to the process of removing a variety of undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids, undesirable gases, and a variety of other impurities from water, mostly with the goal of making the water fit for consumption by living beings. Other than making water fit for consumption, a variety of water purification methods are also employed to process water so as to make it fit for use in a number of medical, chemical, industrial, and pharmacological applications.
The rising scarcity of usable water across the globe and the rapid pace of rise of population, industrialization, and urbanization are collectively putting an increased amount of pressure on the available water resources. The existing water resources also do not provide water that can be readily utilized, owing to factors such as the disposal of municipal and industrial wastes directly into them. These situations call for effective methods for water purification and are considered to be the major drivers of the global water purification market.
A variety of methods are commonly used for purification of water, including sedimentation, filtration, distillation, chlorination, use of electromagnetic radiation, and activated carbon processing. Of these, membrane filters are most commonly used for filtering drinking and sewage water. In regions where there is absolute lack of enough freshwater sources, such as the Middle East, desalination of sea water is a major water purification technique.
In the past few years, the global water purification market has witnessed significant developments in terms of technological and product advancements. Significant development in the reverse osmosis (RO) mechanism has led to the increased preference for RO purifiers over the conventional gravity purifiers. The several advancements in the solar UV water purification technique have helped in taking the technique center-stage at several municipal water purification projects across the globe.
The rising popularity of these advanced water purification techniques have also almost completely phased out techniques like chlorination out of the water purification techniques scenario in the past few years. Although chlorination is still utilized for its low-cost nature in certain niche areas, most water purification projects are increasingly adopting technologically advanced processes that adhere to solar UV, ozonation, or RO principles.