The HetNet Ecosystem (Small Cells, Carrier Wi-Fi, C-RAN & DAS): 2017 - 2030 - Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts


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Driven by the growing demand for in-building wireless coverage and the huge influx of mobile data traffic, conventional macrocells alone are no longer deemed sufficient to handle the needs of today's wireless subscribers. In addition, the imminent adoption of centimeter and millimeter wave spectrum, to support higher data rates in 5G networks, necessitates the usage of much smaller cell sizes.

To cope with growing capacity and coverage requirements, mobile operators are significantly increasing their investments in a variety of Heterogeneous Network or HetNet infrastructure technologies such as strategically deployed small cells, carrier Wi-Fi and DAS (Distributed Antenna System) networks. Adding further to the heterogeneity is the shift towards C-RAN (Centralized RAN) architecture, where centralized baseband functionality is shared across a large number of distributed radio nodes to deliver benefits such as resource pooling, multi-cell coordination, network extensibility and energy efficiency.

SNS Research estimates that global investments on small cells, carrier Wi-Fi, C-RAN and DAS will reach more than $15 Billion by the end of 2017, as mobile operators remain committed to tackle the continued growth of mobile data traffic and evolving coverage requirements. At present, the HetNet market is facing a paradigm shift with multiple advancements ranging from small cell virtualization and neutral hosting to the adoption of unlicensed and shared spectrum. In conjunction with 5G and LTE Advanced network rollouts, these advancements will fuel the market to grow at a CAGR of over 18% between 2017 and 2020.

The “HetNet Ecosystem (Small Cells, Carrier Wi-Fi, C-RAN & DAS): 2017 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents an in-depth assessment of the HetNet ecosystem including enabling technologies, key trends, market drivers, challenges, standardization, regulatory landscape, deployment models, use cases, vertical markets, service provider case studies, opportunities, future roadmap, value chain, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The report also presents forecasts for HetNet infrastructure investments from 2017 till 2030. The forecasts cover 6 individual submarkets and 6 regions.

The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report.

Topics Covered

The report covers the following topics:

  • HetNet ecosystem
  • Market drivers and barriers
  • Enabling technologies and key architectural components for small cells, carrier Wi-Fi, C-RAN and DAS
  • Integration, offloading and SON (Self-Organizing Network) technologies
  • Key trends including RAN disaggregation; small cell virtualization; unlicensed and shared spectrum usage; and neutral hosting
  • Complementary technologies and concepts including millimeter wave radio access; MEC (Mobile Edge Computing); FWA (Fixed Wireless Access); control and user plane separation; and network slicing
  • Small cell backhaul and C-RAN fronthaul technologies
  • HetNet use cases and deployment models including SCaaS (Small Cells-as-a-Service)
  • Enterprise RAN; rural small cells; and tactical small cells for military and public safety applications
  • Over 30 case studies of service provider HetNet deployments
  • Regulatory landscape and standardization
  • Industry roadmap and value chain
  • Profiles and strategies of over 500 leading ecosystem players
  • Strategic recommendations for HetNet infrastructure vendors and mobile operators
  • Market analysis and forecasts from 2017 till 2030

Forecast Segmentation

Market forecasts are provided for each of the following submarkets and their subcategories:

  • Small Cells

Air Interface Technology Segmentation

  • 2G & 3G
  • LTE
  • 5G NR (New Radio)

Deployment Model Segmentation

  • Indoor
  • Outdoor

RAN Architecture Segmentation

  • Standalone
  • C-RAN

Use Case Segmentation

  • Residential
  • Enterprise
  • Urban
  • Rural & Suburban

Cell Size Segmentation

  • Femtocells
  • Picocells
  • Microcells

Small Cell Backhaul

Technology Segmentation

  • DSL
  • Ethernet
  • Microwave
  • Millimeter Wave
  • Satellite
  • Fiber & Others

Carrier Wi-Fi

Submarket Segmentation

  • Access Points
  • Access Point Controllers

Integration Approach Segmentation

  • Standalone Wi-Fi Hotspots
  • Managed Wi-Fi Offload

C-RAN

Air Interface Technology Segmentation

  • 3G & LTE
  • 5G NR

Deployment Model Segmentation

  • Indoor
  • Outdoor

Cell Size Segmentation

  • Small Cells
  • Macrocells

Submarket Segmentation

  • BBUs (Baseband Units)
  • RRHs (Remote Radio Heads)

C-RAN Fronthaul

Technology Segmentation

  • Dedicated Fiber
  • WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing)
  • OTN (Optical Transport Network)
  • PON (Passive Optical Network)
  • Ethernet
  • Microwave
  • Millimeter Wave
  • G.Fast & Others

DAS

Deployment Model Segmentation

  • Indoor
  • Outdoor

Regional Markets

  • Asia Pacific
  • Eastern Europe
  • Latin & Central America
  • Middle East & Africa
  • North America
  • Western Europe

Key Questions Answered

The report provides answers to the following key questions:

  • How big is the HetNet opportunity?
  • What trends, challenges and barriers are influencing its growth?
  • How is the ecosystem evolving by segment and region?
  • What will the market size be in 2020 and at what rate will it grow?
  • Which submarkets will see the highest percentage of growth?
  • How can HetNet infrastructure investments improve wireless coverage and alleviate congestion in mobile operator networks?
  • Can virtualized small cells reduce the TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) of HetNet deployments?
  • How are mobile operators leveraging small cells to deliver cost-effective wireless coverage in rural areas?
  • What is the commercial status of unlicensed and shared spectrum technologies?
  • How are small cell, DAS and Wi-Fi specialists addressing requirements for multi-operator neutral host networks?
  • What are the prospects of microwave and millimeter wave transport networking platforms for small cell backhaul and C-RAN fronthaul?
  • Will mobile operators adopt WiGig and other non-3GPP technologies to complement 5G network rollouts?
  • Who are the key market players, what is their market share and what are their strategies?
  • What strategies should HetNet infrastructure vendors and mobile operators adopt to remain competitive?

Key Findings

The report has the following key findings:

  • SNS Research estimates that global investments on small cells, carrier Wi-Fi, C-RAN and DAS will reach more than $15 Billion by the end of 2017, as mobile operators remain committed to tackle the continued growth of mobile data traffic and evolving coverage requirements.
  • At present, the HetNet market is facing a paradigm shift with multiple advancements ranging from small cell virtualization and neutral hosting to the adoption of unlicensed and shared spectrum.
  • In conjunction with 5G and LTE Advanced network rollouts, these advancements will fuel the market to grow at a CAGR of over 18% between 2017 and 2020.
  • By virtualizing small cells, mobile operators can immediately evaluate the benefits of RAN virtualization with no major impact on their larger macrocell RAN footprint. SNS research estimates that global spending on virtualized small cells will surpass $1 Billion annually by 2020.
  • Unlicensed and shared spectrum small cells are also beginning to gain traction, with shipment revenues potentially reaching $240 Million by the end of 2020.
  • The vendor arena is continuing to consolidate with several prominent M&A deals such as CCI's (Communication Components, Inc.) acquisition of BLiNQ Networks and Mavenir's merger with Ranzure Networks.

List of Companies Mentioned

  • 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project)
  • 3GPP2 (3rd Generation Partnership Project 2)
  • 3Roam
  • 4ipnet
  • 4RF
  • 6Harmonics
  • 6WIND
  • AAS (Amphenol Antenna Solutions)
  • ABB
  • Accedian Networks
  • Accelink Technologies Corporation
  • Accelleran
  • Accuris Networks
  • Accuver
  • Ace Technologies Corporation
  • AceAxis
  • ACOME
  • Actelis Networks
  • Actiontec Electronics
  • Actus Networks
  • Adax
  • ADB
  • ADI (Analog Devices Inc.)
  • ADLINK Technology
  • ADRF (Advanced RF Technologies)
  • ADTRAN
  • ADVA Optical Networking
  • Advantech
  • Advantech Wireless
  • Aerohive Networks
  • AeroMobile
  • Affarii Technologies
  • Affirmed Networks
  • Agema Systems
  • Airgain
  • AirHop Communications
  • Air-Lynx
  • Airrays
  • Airspan Networks
  • AKM (Asahi Kasei Microdevices Corporation)
  • Akoustis Technologies
  • ALAXALA Networks Corporation
  • ALBEDO Telecom
  • Albis-Elcon
  • ALCOMA
  • Allied Data Technologies
  • Allied Telesis
  • Allot Communications
  • Alpha Networks
  • Alpha Wireless
  • Alphabet
  • Altai Technologies
  • Altiostar Networks
  • Altran
  • Alvarion Technologies
  • Amarisoft
  • Amdocs
  • América Móvil Group
  • American Tower Corporation
  • Anertai Communications
  • Anritsu Corporation
  • APRESIA Systems
  • Aptilo Networks
  • Aquantia Corporation
  • Arcadyan Technology Corporation
  • Argela
  • ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan)
  • Aricent
  • ARM Holdings
  • Arqiva
  • ARRIS International
  • Artemis Networks
  • Artesyn Embedded Technologies
  • Artiza Networks
  • Aruba Networks
  • Aselan
  • Askey Computer Corporation
  • ASOCS
  • Astellia
  • ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute)
  • AT&T
  • ATDI
  • Athonet
  • ATIS (U.S. Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)
  • AttoCore
  • Autelan
  • Avanti Communications Group
  • Aviat Networks
  • AVM (AVM Computersysteme Vertriebs)
  • Axiata Group
  • Axxcelera Broadband Wireless
  • Azcom Technology
  • Baicells Technologies
  • BandwidthX
  • BATM Advanced Communications
  • Baylin Technologies
  • Beeline
  • Belkin International
  • Benetel
  • Bharti Airtel
  • Bird Technologies
  • Black Box Corporation
  • BLiNQ Networks
  • Blu Wireless Technology
  • Blue Danube Systems
  • BlueWaveTel
  • BluWan
  • Boingo Wireless
  • Boomsense/Bangxun Technology
  • BoostEdge
  • BridgeWave Communications
  • Broadband Forum
  • Broadcom
  • Brocade Communications Systems
  • Browan Communications
  • BSG Wireless
  • BT Group
  • BTI Wireless
  • C Squared Systems
  • CableFree (Wireless Excellence)
  • CableLabs
  • Cadence Design Systems
  • Calix
  • Cambium Networks
  • Cambridge Consultants
  • Canoga Perkins Corporation
  • Carlson Wireless Technologies
  • Carnegie Technologies
  • CarrierComm
  • Casa Systems
  • Cavium
  • CBNL (Cambridge Broadband Networks Ltd.)
  • CBRS Alliance
  • CCA (Competitive Carriers Association)
  • CCI (Communication Components, Inc.)
  • CCI (Competitive Companies, Inc.)
  • CCI Systems
  • CCN (Cirrus Core Networks)
  • CCS (Cambridge Communication Systems)
  • CCSA (China Communications Standards Association)
  • CeedTec
  • Cellcom (New-Cell)
  • Cellcomm Solutions
  • CellMax Technologies
  • CellMining
  • Cellnex Telecom
  • Cellular One
  • Cellwize Wireless Technologies
  • cellXica
  • CelPlan Technologies
  • Celtro
  • Ceragon Networks
  • CEVA
  • China Mobile
  • China Telecom
  • China Unicom
  • Chunghwa Telecom
  • Cielo Networks
  • Ciena Corporation
  • Cisco Systems
  • Clavister
  • ClearSky Technologies
  • Cloudberry Mobile
  • CND (Core Network Dynamics)
  • Cobham Wireless
  • Cohere Technologies
  • Coherent Logix
  • Collinear Networks
  • Collision Communications
  • Colt Technology Services Group
  • Comba Telecom
  • Comcores
  • CommAgility
  • CommScope
  • Comtech EF Data Corporation
  • Comtech Korea
  • Comtech Telecommunications Corporation
  • Comtrend Corporation
  • Contela
  • Corecess
  • Coriant
  • Corning
  • Cox Communications
  • CPqD (Center for Research and Development in Telecommunications, Brazil)
  • Creanord
  • Crown Castle International Corporation
  • CS Corporation
  • CTIA
  • D2 Technologies
  • Dali Wireless
  • DASAN Zhone Solutions
  • Datang Mobile
  • Datang Telecom
  • Dell Technologies
  • Delta Electronics
  • DENGYO (Nihon Dengyo Kosaku)
  • DigitalGlobe
  • Direct Beam
  • D-Link Corporation
  • DragonWave
  • Druid Software
  • DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Alliance)
  • DT (Deutsche Telekom)
  • DYNE TECH
  • Eahison Communication
  • eASIC Corporation
  • E-Band Communications
  • EBlink
  • EchoStar Corporation
  • ECI Telecom
  • Edgewater Wireless Systems
  • EDX Wireless
  • EION Wireless
  • Ekinops
  • ELVA-1
  • Endaga
  • ENENSYS Technologies
  • Eoptolink Technology
  • Ercom
  • Ericsson
  • Ethernity Networks
  • Ethertronics
  • ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea)
  • ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
  • Eutelsat  Communications
  • EVOLVE
  • Exalt Wireless
  • EXFO
  • Expeto Wireless
  • Expway
  • ExteNet Systems
  • Extreme Networks
  • Facebook
  • Fairwaves
  • Faraday Technology Corporation
  • FastBack Networks
  • FCC (U.S. Federal Communications Commission)
  • Federated Wireless
  • FiberHome Technologies
  • FibroLan
  • Filtronic
  • Finisar Corporation
  • Firetide
  • Flash Networks
  • Flex Logix Technologies
  • Fon
  • Forsk
  • Fortinet
  • Foshan Anderson Communication Equipment
  • Foxcom
  • Fraunhofer FOKUS  (Institute for Open Communication Systems)
  • Fraunhofer HHI (Heinrich Hertz Institute)
  • Frog Cellsat
  • Fujian Helios Technologies
  • Fujian Sunnada Network Technology
  • Fujitsu
  • Furukawa Electric Group
  • Furuno Electric
  • Galgus
  • Galtronics Corporation
  • Gamma Nu
  • GCI (General Communication, Inc.)
  • Gemtek Technology
  • GENBAND
  • General Dynamics Mission Systems
  • Genmix Technology
  • GenXComm
  • GigaLight
  • GIKO GROUP Telecomunicaciones
  • Gilat Satellite Networks
  • Global Invacom Group
  • GlobalFoundries
  • GoNet Systems
  • Goodman Networks
  • Google
  • GRENTECH
  • GSMA
  • GTI
  • Guangzhou Iplook Technologies
  • GWT (Global Wireless Technologies)
  • Handlink Technologies
  • Hansen Technology
  • Harris Corporation
  • HCL Technologies
  • Hefei Maniron Electronic and Technology
  • HetNet Forum
  • HFR
  • Hilinks Technology
  • Hisense
  • Hitachi
  • HPE (Hewlett Packard Enterprise)
  • Huahuan
  • Huawei
  • HUBER+SUHNER
  • Hughes Network Systems
  • HXI
  • IBM Corporation
  • iBwave Solutions
  • IDT (Integrated Device Technology)
  • IDY Corporation
  • IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
  • IM Technology
  • Imec International
  • Impower Technology
  • InCoax
  • Infineon Technologies
  • Infinera
  • InfiNet Wireless
  • Infinite Electronics
  • InfoVista
  • Inmarsat
  • Innertron
  • InnoLight Technology
  • InnoWireless
  • Intel Corporation
  • Intelsat
  • InterDigital
  • Intracom Telecom
  • IP Light
  • ip.access
  • IPITEK
  • iPosi
  • Iskratel
  • IS-Wireless
  • ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan)
  • ITU (International Telecommunications Union)
  • Jiangsu Hengxin Technology
  • Jiangsu Zhengkai Electronics Technology
  • JMA Wireless
  • JQL Electronics
  • JRC (Japan Radio Company)
  • Juni Global
  • Juniper Networks
  • Kaelus
  • Kathrein-Werke KG
  • KDDI Corporation
  • Keima
  • KEYMILE
  • Keysight Technologies
  • Kisan Telecom
  • Kleos
  • KMW
  • Knowles Corporation
  • Koonsys Radiocommunications
  • KPN
  • KT Corporation
  • Kumu Networks
  • Kyrio
  • Lattice Semiconductor
  • Lemko Corporation
  • LG Uplus
  • LGS Innovations
  • Ligado Networks
  • LightPointe Communications
  • LigoWave
  • Lime Microsystems
  • Lindsay Broadband
  • Linker Networks
  • Linksys
  • Lockheed Martin Corporation
  • Loea Corporation
  • LTE-U Forum
  • Lumentum
  • Luminate Wireless
  • Luminet
  • LuxCarta
  • MACOM Technology Solutions Holdings
  • Maja Systems
  • Mathworks
  • Maven Wireless
  • Mavenir Systems
  • MAX4G
  • Maxim Integrated
  • MaxLinear
  • McWane
  • MDG (Mobility Development Group)
  • MEF (Metro Ethernet Forum)
  • MegaFon
  • Mellanox Technologies
  • MER Group
  • Microlab
  • Microsemi Corporation
  • Microwave Networks
  • MIMOon
  • MIMOtech
  • MitraStar Technology Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Group
  • Mobiveil
  • Mojo Networks
  • Molex
  • Mosaik
  • Moseley Associates
  • MRV Communications
  • MTI (Microelectronics Technology, Inc.)
  • MTI Wireless Edge
  • MTS (Mobile TeleSystems)
  • MulteFire Alliance
  • Multiwave Sensors
  • N.A.T.
  • Nash Technologies
  • NEC Corporation
  • Netas
  • NETGEAR
  • Netonomics
  • NETSCOUT Systems
  • New Postcom Equipment
  • NewNet Mobile Communications
  • Nexcomm Systems
  • Nextivity
  • NexxCom Wireless
  • NGMN (Next Generation Mobile Networks) Alliance
  • NI (National Instruments)
  • Node-H
  • Nokia
  • Nokia Networks
  • Nokia Technologies
  • Nomadix
  • Nomor Research
  • NTT DoCoMo
  • NuRAN Wireless
  • Nutaq Innovation
  • NXP Semiconductors
  • O3b Networks
  • Oceus Networks
  • Octasic
  • OE Solutions
  • OFS
  • Omnitron Systems
  • Omoco
  • ON.Lab (Open Networking Lab)
  • OneAccess Networks
  • OneWeb
  • ONF (Open Networking Foundation)
  • OpenCell
  • Optulink
  • Optus
  • Orange
  • OSA (OpenAirInterface Software Alliance)
  • OZC (Optical Zonu Corporation)
  • P.I. Works
  • Panasonic Avionics Corporation
  • Panasonic Corporation
  • Panda Electronics Group
  • Panorama Antennas
  • Parallel Wireless
  • Patton Electronics
  • Peraso Technologies
  • Phluido
  • Plasma Antennas
  • Pletronics
  • PMN (Private Mobile Networks)
  • Polaris Networks
  • Polewall
  • Polystar
  • Positron
  • Potevio
  • PRISMA Telecom Testing
  • Procera Networks
  • Proxim Wireless Corporation
  • pureLiFi
  • Qorvo
  • Qualcomm
  • Quanta Computer
  • Qucell
  • Qulsar
  • Quortus
  • Qwilt
  • RACOM
  • RAD Data Communications
  • RADCOM
  • Radio Gigabit
  • Radisys Corporation
  • RADWIN
  • Raisecom
  • Rakon
  • Range Networks
  • Ranplan Wireless Network Design
  • Raycap
  • Rearden
  • Red Hat
  • RED Technologies
  • Redline Communications
  • REMEC Broadband Wireless Networks
  • Renaissance Electronics & Communications
  • RF DSP
  • RF MORECOM KOREA
  • RF Window
  • RFS (Radio Frequency Systems)
  • Rivada Networks
  • Rohde & Schwarz
  • Rosenberger
  • R-TRON
  • Ruckus Wireless
  • SAF Tehnika
  • Sagemcom
  • Saguna Networks
  • SAI Technology
  • Samji Electronics
  • Samsung Electronics
  • Samsung Group
  • Sarokal Test Systems
  • SAT (Smart Antenna Technologies)
  • SCF (Small Cell Forum)
  • SDP Telecom
  • Senao Networks
  • Seontech
  • SerComm Corporation
  • SES
  • Sevis Systems
  • SevOne
  • SFR
  • Shared Access
  • Shenzhen Huaptec
  • Shyam Group
  • Shyam Networks
  • Shyam Telecom
  • SIAE Microelectronica
  • Siklu Communication
  • Silicon Labs (Silicon Laboratories)
  • Singtel
  • SIRADEL
  • SiRRAN Communications
  • Sistelbanda
  • SITRONICS
  • Sivers IMA
  • SK Telecom
  • SK Telesys
  • Skybird Electronic Science & Technology
  • SkyFiber
  • Skyview Capital
  • Skyworks Solutions
  • SMC Networks
  • Smith Micro Software
  • SoftBank Group
  • Solectek Corporation
  • SOLiD
  • Sonus Networks
  • Sooktha
  • Source Photonics
  • Space Data Corporation
  • Spectronite
  • SpiderCloud Wireless
  • Sprint Corporation
  • SRS (Software Radio Systems)
  • ST Engineering (Singapore Technologies Engineering)
  • Star Microwave
  • Star Solutions
  • Starry
  • STMicroelectronics
  • Sumitomo Electric Industries
  • Sunwave Solutions
  • SuperCom
  • Suzhou Hexagon Communication Technologies
  • Syniverse Technologies
  • Tarana Wireless
  • Tata Elxsi
  • Tech Mahindra
  • Technicolor
  • Teco Group
  • Tecom
  • Tecore Networks
  • TEKTELIC Communications
  • Telco Systems
  • Telecom Italia Group
  • Telefónica Group
  • Telenor Group
  • Telia Company
  • Tellion
  • Tellumat
  • Telnet Redes Inteligentes
  • Telrad Networks
  • Telsey
  • Telstra
  • Telum
  • Telus Corporation
  • TEOCO Corporation
  • TESSCO Technologies
  • Thuraya Telecommunications Company
  • TI (Texas Instruments)
  • Tieto Corporation
  • Tilgin
  • TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile)
  • Towerstream Corporation
  • TP-LINK Technologies
  • Trango Systems
  • Transition Networks
  • Tranzeo Wireless Technologies
  • Tropico
  • TruConnect Technologies
  • TSDSI (Telecommunications Standards Development Society, India)
  • TSMC (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company)
  • TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association, South Korea)
  • TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee, Japan)
  • TTP (The Technology Partnership)
  • Tulinx
  • Turk Telekom
  • Ubiquiti Networks
  • Ubiquoss
  • U-blox
  • UNICOM Global
  • UTStarcom
  • Vanu
  • Vasona Networks
  • Vectron International
  • Vencore Labs
  • VEON
  • Verizon Communications
  • ViaSat
  • Viavi Solutions
  • Virgin Media
  • Virtuosys
  • VMware
  • VNL (Vihaan Networks Limited)
  • Vodafone Group
  • VT iDirect
  • VT Systems (Vision Technologies Systems)
  • Vubiq Networks
  • Wave1
  • Wavesight
  • WBA (Wireless Broadband Alliance)
  • Webpass
  • Westell Technologies
  • Wevercomm
  • WIA (Wireless Infrastructure Association)
  • Wi-Fi Alliance
  • WiFiForward
  • Wilson Electronics
  • WiMAX Forum
  • Wind Tre
  • WinnForum (Wireless Innovation Forum)
  • WiPro
  • Wireless Telecom Group
  • WiSig Networks
  • WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation)
  • WTL (World Telecom Labs)
  • Wuhan Fingu Electronic Technology
  • Wuhan Gewei Electronic Technologies
  • Wytec International
  • XAVi Technologies Corporation
  • XCellAir
  • Xelic
  • Xilinx
  • xRAN Consortium
  • Yamaha Corporation
  • Zayo Group
  • Z-Com
  • Zinwave
  • ZTE
  • Zyxel Communications Corporation

Countires Covered

  • Afghanistan
  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • Andorra
  • Angola
  • Anguilla
  • Antigua & Barbuda
  • Argentina
  • Armenia
  • Aruba
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Bahamas
  • Bahrain
  • Bangladesh
  • Barbados
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Belize
  • Benin
  • Bermuda
  • Bhutan
  • Bolivia
  • Bosnia Herzegovina
  • Botswana
  • Brazil
  • British Virgin Islands
  • Brunei
  • Bulgaria
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cambodia
  • Cameroon
  • Canada
  • Cape Verde
  • Cayman Islands
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Chile
  • China
  • Cocos Islands
  • Colombia
  • Comoros Islands
  • Congo
  • Cook Islands
  • Costa Rica
  • Côte d'Ivoire
  • Croatia
  • Cuba
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Democratic Rep of Congo (ex-Zaire)
  • Denmark
  • Djibouti
  • Dominica
  • Dominican Republic
  • East Timor
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • El Salvador
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Eritrea
  • Estonia
  • Ethiopia
  • Faroe Islands
  • Federated States of Micronesia
  • Fiji
  • Finland
  • France
  • French Guiana
  • French Polynesia (ex-Tahiti)
  • French West Indies
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Georgia
  • Germany
  • Ghana
  • Gibraltar
  • Greece
  • Greenland
  • Grenada
  • Guam
  • Guatemala
  • Guernsey
  • Guinea Republic
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Guyana
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Hong Kong
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Ireland
  • Isle of Man
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Jamaica
  • Japan
  • Jersey
  • Jordan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kenya
  • Kirghizstan
  • Kiribati
  • Korea
  • Kosovo
  • Kuwait
  • Laos
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Libya
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Macau
  • Macedonia
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Malaysia
  • Maldives
  • Mali
  • Malta
  • Marshall Islands
  • Mauritania
  • Mauritius
  • Mayotte
  • Mexico
  • Moldova
  • Monaco
  • Mongolia
  • Montenegro
  • Montserrat
  • Morocco
  • Mozambique
  • Myanmar
  • Namibia
  • Nepal
  • Netherlands
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • New Caledonia
  • New Zealand
  • Nicaragua
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Niue
  • North Korea
  • Northern Marianas
  • Norway
  • Oman
  • Pakistan
  • Palau
  • Palestine
  • Panama
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Puerto Rico
  • Qatar
  • Réunion
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Rwanda
  • Samoa
  • Samoa (American)
  • Sao Tomé & Principe
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Senegal
  • Serbia
  • Seychelles
  • Sierra Leone
  • Singapore
  • Slovak Republic
  • Slovenia
  • Solomon Islands
  • Somalia
  • South Africa
  • Spain
  • Sri Lanka
  • St Kitts & Nevis
  • St Lucia
  • St Vincent & The Grenadines
  • Sudan
  • Suriname
  • Swaziland
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Syria
  • Tajikistan
  • Taiwan
  • Tanzania
  • Thailand
  • Togo
  • Tonga
  • Trinidad & Tobago
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey
  • Turkmenistan
  • Turks & Caicos Islands
  • UAE
  • Uganda
  • UK
  • Ukraine
  • Uruguay
  • US Virgin Islands
  • USA
  • Uzbekistan
  • Vanuatu
  • Venezuela
  • Vietnam
  • Yemen
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe

Table of Contents

1 Chapter 1: Introduction 47
1.1 Executive Summary 47
1.2 Topics Covered 49
1.3 Forecast Segmentation 50
1.4 Key Questions Answered 53
1.5 Key Findings 54
1.6 Methodology 55
1.7 Target Audience 56
1.8 Companies & Organizations Mentioned 57

2 Chapter 2: An Overview of Small Cells, Carrier Wi-Fi, C-RAN & DAS 64
2.1 An Evolving Heterogeneous Networking Ecosystem 64
2.1.1 The Growing Demand for Mobile Broadband 64
2.1.2 Is LTE the Answer to All Capacity Problems? 64
2.1.3 HetNets: An Evolution of Network Topology 65
2.2 Small Cells 66
2.2.1 What Are Small Cells? 66
2.2.2 Why Deploy Small Cells? 66
2.2.3 Small Cell Categories 68
2.2.3.1 Femtocells 68
2.2.3.2 Picocells 69
2.2.3.3 Microcells 69
2.3 Carrier Wi-Fi 70
2.3.1 Carrier Wi-Fi Integration Approaches 71
2.3.2 Standalone Hotspots 71
2.3.3 Managed Offload 71
2.3.3.1 SIM-Based Wi-Fi Offload 71
2.3.3.2 RAN Integrated Wi-Fi Access 71
2.4 C-RAN (Centralized RAN) 72
2.4.1 What is C-RAN? 72
2.4.2 Architectural Benefits and Challenges 72
2.4.3 Key Architectural Components 73
2.4.3.1 RRHs (Remote Radio Heads) 73
2.4.3.2 BBUs (Baseband Units) 73
2.4.3.3 Fronthaul 74
2.5 Cloud RAN: Virtualizing C-RAN 75
2.5.1 Leveraging Commodity Technologies 76
2.5.2 Moving RAN to the Cloud 76
2.6 DAS (Distributed Antenna System) 77
2.6.1 What is DAS? 77
2.6.2 Passive DAS 78
2.6.3 Active DAS 79
2.6.4 Hybrid DAS 80
2.7 Other Options for Offloading Mobile Network Coverage and Capacity 81
2.7.1 Macrocell Network and Spectrum Expansion 81
2.7.2 Caching & Mobile CDNs (Content Delivery Networks) 81
2.8 The Business Case: Key Market Drivers 82
2.8.1 Capacity & Coverage Improvement: Addressing the Mobile Data Traffic Tsunami 82
2.8.2 Endorsement from the Mobile Operator Community 83
2.8.3 In-Building & Enterprise Coverage Requirements 84
2.8.4 Capacity Offload in Congested Urban Environments 84
2.8.5 Cost-Effective Rural Coverage 85
2.8.6 CapEx Savings 85
2.8.7 Non-Expandability of Macrocell Networks 85
2.8.8 Impact of 5G Rollouts 86
2.9 Challenges & Inhibitors to the HetNet Ecosystem 86
2.9.1 Interference with Macrocell Infrastructure & Spectrum Constraints 86
2.9.2 Conflicting HetNet Offerings 86
2.9.3 Fronthaul & Backhaul Investments 87
2.9.4 Migration from Legacy Architectures 87
2.9.5 Economic Constraints & Deployment Challenges 88
2.9.6 Security Concerns 88

3 Chapter 3: Integration & Offloading Technology 89
3.1 Integrating Small Cells into the Mobile Network 89
3.1.1 Integration into 3G Networks 89
3.1.1.1 Iuh based Integration: Residential & Enterprise Femtocells 89
3.1.1.2 Iub: Microcells, Picocells and Femtocells 91
3.1.2 S1: Integration into LTE Networks 91
3.1.2.1 eNB Small Cell Architecture 92
3.1.2.2 HeNB Small Cell Architecture 92
3.1.3 Integration into 5G NR (New Radio) Networks 93
3.1.3.1 Non-Standalone Operation with LTE 93
3.1.3.2 NG2 & NG3: NextGen (Next Generation) System Architecture 93
3.2 Integrating C-RAN into the Mobile Network 94
3.2.1 CPRI (Common Public Radio Interface) 94
3.2.2 OBSAI (Open Base Station Architecture Initiative) 95
3.2.3 ORI (Open Radio Interface) 95
3.2.4 Ethernet 95
3.3 Wi-Fi: The Evolution from an Ethernet Extension to Mobile RAN Integration 96
3.4 Enabling Technologies for Wi-Fi and Cellular RAN Interoperability 97
3.4.1 ANDSF (Access Network Discovery and Selection Function) 97
3.4.1.1 Enabling Seamless Mobility 97
3.4.1.2 Commercial Availability of ANDSF Solutions 97
3.4.2 Hotspot 2.0 98
3.4.2.1 Discovery - 802.11u 98
3.4.2.2 Encryption - 802.11i (WPA2) 98
3.4.2.3 Authentication – 802.1x (EAP) 99
3.4.2.4 OMA (Open Mobile Alliance) DM (Device Management) 99
3.4.2.5 Passpoint Wi-Fi Certification 99
3.4.3 NGH (Next Generation Hotspot) 99
3.4.3.1 Working Alongside Hotspot 2.0 100
3.4.3.2 Enabling Seamless Mobile Network Connectivity 100
3.4.4 I-WLAN (Interworking Wireless LAN) 100
3.4.5 WISPr (Wireless Internet Service Provider Roaming) 101
3.4.6 MSAP (Mobility Services Advertisement Protocol) 101
3.5 Small Cell and Mobile Core Offloading Technologies 102
3.5.1 LIPA (Local IP Access) 102
3.5.1.1 Is LIPA Specifically for Small Cells? 102
3.5.1.2 Use Case Example: Local Network Multimedia Access 102
3.5.2 SIPTO (Selected IP Traffic Offload) 103
3.5.2.1 Use Case Example: Core Network Offload 103
3.5.2.2 The Downside: Is SIPTO Suitable for All Traffic Profiles? 103
3.5.3 IFOM (IP Flow Mobility and Seamless Offload) 104
3.5.3.1 Enabling Seamless Integration between Wi-Fi and 3GPP RANs 104
3.6 Wi-Fi and Cellular RAN Integration: Commercial Implementations for Address HetNet Challenges 105
3.6.1 Wi-Fi Integration into Macrocell and Small Cell Base Stations 105
3.6.2 Policy Driven Control 105
3.6.3 Enabling Wi-Fi Calling: Dynamic Switching between Wi-Fi and LTE 105
3.7 Integration of SON (Self-Organizing Network) Capabilities 106
3.7.1 Enabling Plug-and-play Functionality 106
3.7.2 Enhancing HetNet Performance 107

4 Chapter 4: Key Trends in Next-Generation HetNet Infrastructure 108
4.1 RAN Disaggregation: Blurring the Lines Between Small Cells and C-RAN 108
4.1.1 Fully Centralized Baseband Processing: PHY-RF Split 109
4.1.2 Partially Centralized Functional Splits 111
4.1.2.1 Intra-PHY Split 111
4.1.2.2 MAC-PHY Split 112
4.1.2.3 Intra-MAC Split 112
4.1.2.4 RLC-MAC Split 112
4.1.2.5 Intra-RLC Split 113
4.1.2.6 PDCP-RLC Split 113
4.1.2.7 RRC-PDCP Split 113
4.2 Small Cell Virtualization 114
4.2.1 Overview of RAN Virtualization 114
4.2.2 Why Virtualize Small Cells? 115
4.2.3 Next-Generation Small Cells: Hardware vs. Software-Based Architecture 116
4.2.3.1 Performance 117
4.2.3.2 Cost 118
4.2.3.3 Other Market Factors 119
4.2.4 Review of Existing Virtualized Small Cell Deployments 120
4.3 Unlicensed & Shared Spectrum Usage 121
4.3.1 Bringing the Simplicity of Wi-Fi to LTE & 5G Small Cells 121
4.3.2 Key Technology Options for Spectrum Sharing & Aggregation 121
4.3.2.1 LSA (Licensed Shared Access): Two-Tiered Sharing 121
4.3.2.2 SAS (Spectrum Access System): Three-Tiered Sharing 122
4.3.2.3 LAA (License Assisted Access) & LTE-U: Licensed & Unlicensed Spectrum Aggregation 124
4.3.2.4 New Mechanisms for 60 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Sharing 125
4.3.2.5 MulteFire 126
4.3.2.6 LWA (LTE – Wi-Fi Link Aggregation) 126
4.3.2.7 LWIP (LTE WLAN integration with IPSec Tunnel) 127
4.3.2.8 MPTCP Based LTE – Wi-Fi Aggregation 127
4.3.3 Commercial Status 127
4.4 Neutral Hosting 128
4.4.1 A Win-Win for Mobile Operators and Hosts 128
4.4.2 Moving Towards Multi-Operator Small Cells 128
4.4.2.1 Commercial Multi-Operator Small Cell Offerings 129
4.4.2.2 Disruptive DAS Products 129
4.4.3 Synergies with Spectrum Sharing & Small Cell Virtualization 129
4.5 Moving Towards Higher Frequencies 130
4.5.1 Higher Frequency & Millimeter Wave Small Cells 130
4.5.2 Potential Usage of 60 GHz WiGig Technology 131
4.6 Small Cells for Rural Coverage 131
4.6.1 Review of Mobile Operator Commitments 131
4.6.2 How Are Vendors Addressing the Market? 133
4.6.3 How Big is the Opportunity? 133
4.7 Other Trends 134
4.7.1 UDN (Ultra Dense Networks) 134
4.7.2 MEC (Multi-Access Edge Computing) 135
4.7.3 FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) 135
4.7.4 Multi-Site Connectivity, Carrier Aggregation & User Centric Cell Access 137
4.7.5 Control and User Plane Separation 137
4.7.6 Small Cells for Dedicated IoT Applications 138
4.7.7 Network Slicing 138

5 Chapter 5: Industry Roadmap and Value Chain 140
5.1 HetNet Industry Roadmap: 2017 – 2030 140
5.1.1 2017 – 2020: Large Scale Small Cell, Carrier Wi-Fi, C-RAN & DAS Rollouts 140
5.1.2 2020 – 2025: Moving Towards Virtualized & Shared Spectrum Small Cells 141
5.1.3 2025 – 2030: Continued Densification with 5G Network Rollouts 141
5.2 HetNet Value Chain 142
5.3 Embedded Technology Ecosystem 142
5.3.1 Chipset Developers 142
5.3.2 Embedded Component/Software Providers 142
5.4 RAN Ecosystem 144
5.4.1 Macrocell RAN OEMs 144
5.4.2 Pure-Play Small Cell OEMs 144
5.4.3 Wi-Fi Access Point OEMs 144
5.4.4 DAS & Repeater Solution Providers 145
5.4.5 C-RAN Solution Providers 145
5.4.6 Other Technology Providers 145
5.5 Transport Networking Ecosystem 145
5.5.1 Backhaul & Fronthaul Solution Providers 145
5.6 Mobile Core Ecosystem 146
5.6.1 Mobile Core Solution Providers 146
5.7 Connectivity Ecosystem 146
5.7.1 Mobile Operators 146
5.7.2 Wi-Fi Connectivity Providers 146
5.7.3 SCaaS (Small Cells-as-a-Service) Providers 147
5.8 SON Ecosystem 147
5.8.1 SON Solution Providers 147
5.9 SDN & NFV Ecosystem 147
5.9.1 SDN & NFV Providers 147

6 Chapter 6: HetNet Deployment Models, Use Cases & Vertical Markets 148
6.1 Deployment Models 148
6.1.1 Indoor 148
6.1.2 Outdoor 149
6.2 Use Cases 150
6.2.1 Residential 150
6.2.2 Enterprise 150
6.2.3 Urban 151
6.2.4 Rural & Suburban 151
6.3 Service Models for Carrier Wi-Fi 152
6.3.1 Mobile Offload 152
6.3.2 Wholesale & Other Approaches 152
6.4 SCaaS (Small Cells-as-a-Service) 153
6.4.1 Addressing the Logistical Challenges of Small Cell Rollouts 153
6.4.2 Cost & Structural Efficiencies 153
6.4.3 How Big is the Opportunity for SCaaS Providers? 154
6.4.4 Major SCaaS Commitments 155
6.4.4.1 BT Group 155
6.4.4.2 Cellcom (New-Cell) 156
6.4.4.3 ClearSky Technologies 156
6.4.4.4 Cloudberry Mobile 156
6.4.4.5 Colt Technology Services Group 157
6.4.4.6 Cox Communications 157
6.4.4.7 Towerstream Corporation 157
6.4.4.8 Virgin Media 158
6.4.4.9 Luminet 158
6.4.4.10 Zayo Group 158
6.4.4.11 Offerings from the Vendor Community 159
6.5 Key Vertical Markets 159
6.5.1 Agriculture 159
6.5.2 Construction 159
6.5.3 Education 160
6.5.4 Energy & Utilities 160
6.5.5 Enterprises 161
6.5.6 Healthcare 161
6.5.7 Military 162
6.5.8 Public Safety & Emergency Services 162
6.5.9 Public Venues 162
6.5.10 Residential 163
6.5.11 Retail & Hospitality 163

7 Chapter 7: HetNet Backhaul & Fronthaul 164
7.1 Small Cell Backhaul Technology 164
7.1.1 DSL 164
7.1.2 Ethernet 164
7.1.3 Microwave 165
7.1.4 Millimeter Wave 166
7.1.5 Satellite 166
7.1.6 Fiber & Others 166
7.2 C-RAN Fronthaul Technology 167
7.2.1 Dedicated Fiber (Dark Fiber) 167
7.2.2 WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) 167
7.2.3 PON (Passive Optical Network) 168
7.2.4 OTN (Optical Transport Network) 168
7.2.5 Ethernet 168
7.2.6 G.Fast 168
7.2.7 Microwave 169
7.2.8 Millimeter Wave 169
7.3 Requirements for HetNet Backhaul & Fronthaul 169
7.3.1 Form Factor & Environmental Hardening 169
7.3.2 Power Supply & Consumption 169
7.3.3 Installation & Provisioning 170
7.3.4 Integration of OAM and SON Capabilities 170
7.3.5 Deployment & Maintenance Cost 170
7.4 Key Issues 170
7.4.1 Backhaul Sharing: Can Small Cells and Macrocells Share Resources? 170
7.4.2 Coverage Challenges 171
7.4.3 Capacity/Peak Throughput Challenges 171
7.4.4 Will Millimeter Wave be the Preferred Outdoor Small Cell Backhaul Solution? 171
7.4.5 Is Fronthaul the Bottleneck to C-RAN Rollouts? 172
7.4.6 Is Ethernet a Feasible Solution for C-RAN Fronthaul? 172
7.4.7 Is there a Market for Satellite based HetNet Transport? 172
7.4.8 Assessing the Impact of the SCaaS Ecosystem 173

8 Chapter 8: Standardization & Regulatory Initiatives 174
8.1 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) 174
8.1.1 Small Cell Standardization 174
8.1.2 Additional Small Cell & HetNet Enhancements 175
8.1.3 Functional Splits for C-RAN Implementation in 5G Networks 176
8.2 3GPP2 (3rd Generation Partnership Project 2) & MDG (Mobility Development Group) 177
8.2.1 HetNet Standardization Activities 177
8.3 Broadband Forum 178
8.3.1 TR-069 & TR-196 for Small Cell Management 178
8.3.2 Broadband 20/20 Vision: Convergence of 5G Mobile & Fixed Networks 178
8.3.3 Other Efforts Related to HetNets 179
8.4 CableLabs 179
8.4.1 Research on High Capacity Millimeter Wave Small Cells 179
8.4.2 Unlicensed and Shared Spectrum LTE for the Cable Industry 179
8.4.3 Other Work Relevant to 5G & HetNet Infrastructure 180
8.5 CBRS Alliance 180
8.5.1 Ecosystem Development for LTE-Based CBRS Solutions 180
8.6 CPRI Initiative 181
8.6.1 CPRI Releases 1.4 to 7.0 for 3G & LTE Fronthaul 181
8.6.2 eCPRI for 5G Fronthaul 181
8.7 DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Alliance) 182
8.7.1 Dynamic Spectrum Sharing for 5G and LTE Networks 182
8.8 ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) 183
8.8.1 Small Cell Testing 183
8.8.2 ORI for Fronthaul 183
8.8.3 NFV (Network Functions Virtualization) for vRAN and Virtualized Small Cells 184
8.8.4 MEC (Multi-Access Edge Computing) 185
8.8.5 Millimeter Wave Transmission & Other Work 186
8.9 EVOLVE 186
8.9.1 LTE-U and LAA Advocacy Efforts 186
8.10 GSMA 187
8.10.1 TS.22: Recommendations for Minimum Wi-Fi Capabilities of Terminals 187
8.10.2 IR.61: Wi-Fi Roaming Guidelines 188
8.10.3 IR.51 & NG.106: IMS over Wi-Fi 188
8.10.4 Policy Recommendations for Small Cell Deployments 189
8.10.5 5G Program & Spectrum Policy 189
8.11 GTI 190
8.11.1 HetNets & Small Cells in TD-LTE Development & Evolution 190
8.11.2 5G Innovation Program 191
8.12 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 191
8.12.1 IEEE 802.11 WLAN Standard & Revisions 191
8.12.2 IEEE 802.1CM: TSN (Time-Sensitive Networking) for Fronthaul 192
8.12.3 IEEE P1904.3: Standard for RoE (Radio over Ethernet) Encapsulations and Mappings 193
8.12.4 IEEE 1914: NGFI (Next Generation Fronthaul Interface) Working Group 194
8.12.5 Contribution to 5G Standards Development 194
8.12.6 Other Standards & Work Groups 195
8.13 ITU (International Telecommunications Union) 195
8.13.3 FG IMT-2020 (Focus Group on IMT-2020) 197
8.13.4 Spectrum Allocation 198
8.14 LTE-U Forum 198
8.14.1 LTE-U Technical Specifications 198
8.15 MEF (Metro Ethernet Forum) 199
8.15.1 Ethernet Transport for Small Cells & C-RAN 199
8.16 MulteFire Alliance 200
8.16.1 MulteFire Release 1.0 Specification 200
8.17 NGMN (Next Generation Mobile Networks) Alliance 201
8.17.1 P-CRAN (Project Centralized RAN) 201
8.17.2 Small Cell Project 202
8.17.3 RAN Evolution Project 202
8.17.4 5G Work Program & Other Work 202
8.19 ONF (Open Networking Foundation) & ON.Lab (Open Networking Lab) 204
8.20 OSA (OpenAirInterface Software Alliance) 206
8.20.1 LTE vRAN Implementation 206
8.21 SCF (Small Cell Forum) 207
8.21.1 Release 1: Residential Small Cells 208
8.21.2 Release 2: Enterprise Small Cells 208
8.21.3 Releases 3 & 4: Urban Small Cells 208
8.21.4 Release 5: Rural & Remote Small Cells 209
8.21.5 Release 6: Smart Enterprise Small Cells 210
8.21.6 Release 7: HetNet Foundations 210
8.21.7 Release 8: Small Cell Virtualization 211
8.21.8 Release 9: Network Densification and Evolution to 5G 212
8.22 TIP (Telecom Infra Project) 213
8.22.1 OpenCellular – Wireless Access Design Platform 213
8.22.2 Solutions Integration – Unbundled RAN Architecture 214
8.22.3 Edge Computing 215
8.22.4 vRAN Fronthaul 215
8.22.5 Open Optical Packet Transport 215
8.22.6 Mobile Core Optimization 216
8.22.7 Greenfield Telecom Networks 216
8.22.8 Other Projects 216
8.23 WBA (Wireless Broadband Alliance) 217
8.23.1 Carrier Wi-Fi Services Program 217
8.23.2 Next Generation Wireless Program 220
8.24 WIA (Wireless Infrastructure Association) 221
8.24.1 HetNet Forum 221
8.24.2 Other Work 222
8.25 Wi-Fi Alliance 222
8.25.1 Hotspot 2.0 & Passpoint Certification Program 222
8.25.2 Positioning WiGig as a 5G Technology 223
8.25.3 Wi-Fi Spectrum Advocacy Efforts & Other Programs 223
8.26 WiFiForward 224
8.26.1 Wi-Fi Spectrum Advocacy Efforts 224
8.27 WiMAX Forum 224
8.27.1 WiMAX Small Cells 225
8.28 WinnForum (Wireless Innovation Forum) 225
8.28.1 Spectrum Sharing Specifications for LTE & 5G Networks 225

9 Chapter 9: Service Provider Case Studies 227
9.1 América Móvil Group 227
9.1.1 Overview 227
9.1.2 Key Vendors 227
9.1.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 227
9.2 AT&T 229
9.2.1 Overview 229
9.2.2 Key Vendors 229
9.2.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 229
9.3 Axiata Group 231
9.3.1 Overview 231
9.3.2 Key Vendors 231
9.3.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 231
9.4 Bharti Airtel 232
9.4.1 Overview 232
9.4.2 Key Vendors 232
9.4.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 232
9.5 Boingo Wireless 233
9.5.1 Overview 233
9.5.2 Key Vendors 233
9.5.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 233
9.6 BT Group 235
9.6.1 Overview 235
9.6.2 Key Vendors 235
9.6.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 235
9.7 China Mobile 237
9.7.1 Overview 237
9.7.2 Key Vendors 237
9.7.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 237
9.8 China Telecom 239
9.8.1 Overview 239
9.8.2 Key Vendors 239
9.8.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 239
9.9 China Unicom 241
9.9.1 Overview 241
9.9.2 Key Vendors 241
9.9.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 241
9.10 Chunghwa Telecom 242
9.10.1 Overview 242
9.10.2 Key Vendors 242
9.10.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 242
9.11 DT (Deutsche Telekom) 243
9.11.1 Overview 243
9.11.2 Key Vendors 243
9.11.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 243
9.12 Fon 244
9.12.1 Overview 244
9.12.2 Key Vendors 244
9.12.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 244
9.13 KDDI Corporation 246
9.13.1 Overview 246
9.13.2 Key Vendors 246
9.13.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 246
9.14 KPN 247
9.14.1 Overview 247
9.14.2 Key Vendors 247
9.14.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 247
9.15 KT Corporation 248
9.15.1 Overview 248
9.15.2 Key Vendors 248
9.15.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 248
9.16 LG Uplus 250
9.16.1 Overview 250
9.16.2 Key Vendors 250
9.16.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 250
9.17 MegaFon 252
9.17.1 Overview 252
9.17.2 Key Vendors 252
9.17.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 252
9.18 MTS (Mobile TeleSystems) 253
9.18.1 Overview 253
9.18.2 Key Vendors 253
9.18.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 253
9.19 NTT DoCoMo 254
9.19.1 Overview 254
9.19.2 Key Vendors 254
9.19.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 254
9.20 Orange 256
9.20.1 Overview 256
9.20.2 Key Vendors 256
9.20.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 256
9.21 SFR 258
9.21.1 Overview 258
9.21.2 Key Vendors 258
9.21.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 258
9.22 Singtel 259
9.22.1 Overview 259
9.22.2 Key Vendors 259
9.22.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 259
9.23 SK Telecom 261
9.23.1 Overview 261
9.23.2 Key Vendors 261
9.23.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 261
9.24 SoftBank Group 264
9.24.1 Overview 264
9.24.2 Key Vendors 264
9.24.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 264
9.25 Sprint Corporation 267
9.25.1 Overview 267
9.25.2 Key Vendors 267
9.25.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 267
9.26 Telefónica Group 269
9.26.1 Overview 269
9.26.2 Key Vendors 269
9.26.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 269
9.27 Telenor Group 271
9.27.1 Overview 271
9.27.2 Key Vendors 271
9.27.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 271
9.28 Telia Company 272
9.28.1 Overview 272
9.28.2 Key Vendors 272
9.28.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 272
9.29 Telstra 273
9.29.1 Overview 273
9.29.2 Key Vendors 273
9.29.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 273
9.30 Telus Corporation 274
9.30.1 Overview 274
9.30.2 Key Vendors 274
9.30.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 274
9.31 TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile) 276
9.31.1 Overview 276
9.31.2 Key Vendors 276
9.31.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 276
9.32 VEON 278
9.32.1 Overview 278
9.32.2 Key Vendors 278
9.32.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 278
9.33 Verizon Communications 280
9.33.1 Overview 280
9.33.2 Key Vendors 280
9.33.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 280
9.34 Vodafone Group 282
9.34.1 Overview 282
9.34.2 Key Vendors 282
9.34.3 HetNet Deployment Summary 282

10 Chapter 10: Wireless Network Infrastructure Incumbents 284
10.1 Cisco Systems 284
10.2 Datang Mobile 287
10.3 Ericsson 288
10.4 FiberHome Technologies 291
10.5 Fujitsu 292
10.6 Huawei 294
10.7 NEC Corporation 296
10.8 Nokia Networks 298
10.9 Samsung Electronics 301
10.10 ZTE 304

11 Chapter 11: Macrocell RAN, Small Cell, C-RAN & Mobile Core Specialists 307
11.1 6Harmonics 307
11.2 Accelleran 308
11.3 Adax 309
11.4 ADB 310
11.5 Affirmed Networks 311
11.6 Air-Lynx 312
11.7 Airspan Networks 313
11.8 Alpha Networks 315
11.9 Altiostar Networks 316
11.10 Arcadyan Technology Corporation 317
11.11 Argela 318
11.12 Artemis Networks 320
11.13 Aselan 321
11.14 Askey Computer Corporation 322
11.15 ASOCS 323
11.16 Athonet 324
11.17 AttoCore 325
11.18 Baicells Technologies 326
11.19 Brocade Communications Systems 327
11.20 Casa Systems 328
11.21 CCN (Cirrus Core Networks) 329
11.22 cellXica 330
11.23 CND (Core Network Dynamics) 331
11.24 Collinear Networks 333
11.25 Contela 334
11.26 CS Corporation 335
11.27 Delta Electronics 336
11.28 Druid Software 337
11.29 EION Wireless 338
11.30 Expeto Wireless 339
11.31 Facebook 340
11.32 Fairwaves 343
11.33 Fujian Sunnada Network Technology 345
11.34 Gemtek Technology 346
11.35 GENBAND 347
11.36 General Dynamics Mission Systems 348
11.37 GIKO GROUP Telecomunicaciones 349
11.38 Google 350
11.39 Guangzhou Iplook Technologies 352
11.40 GWT (Global Wireless Technologies) 353
11.41 Harris Corporation 354
11.42 Hitachi 355
11.43 IDY Corporation 356
11.44 InnoWireless 357
11.45 ip.access 359
11.46 JRC (Japan Radio Company) 361
11.47 Juni Global 362
11.48 Kleos 363
11.49 Lemko Corporation 364
11.50 LGS Innovations 365
11.51 Luminate Wireless 366
11.52 Mavenir Systems 367
11.53 MitraStar Technology Corporation 369
11.54 Moseley Associates 370
11.55 Netas 371
11.56 New Postcom Equipment 372
11.57 NewNet Mobile Communications 373
11.58 NuRAN Wireless 374
11.59 Oceus Networks 376
11.60 Omoco 378
11.61 OpenCell 379
11.62 Panda Electronics Group 380
11.63 Parallel Wireless 381
11.64 Phluido 382
11.65 PMN (Private Mobile Networks) 384
11.66 Polaris Networks 385
11.67 Potevio 386
11.68 Quanta Computer 387
11.69 Qucell 388
11.70 Quortus 389
11.71 Range Networks 390
11.72 Redline Communications 391
11.73 Sagemcom 392
11.74 Samji Electronics 393
11.75 SerComm Corporation 394
11.76 SiRRAN Communications 395
11.77 Sistelbanda 396
11.78 SITRONICS 397
11.79 SK Telesys 398
11.80 Sonus Networks 399
11.81 Sooktha 400
11.82 SpiderCloud Wireless 401
11.83 Star Solutions 403
11.84 Starry 405
11.85 Technicolor 406
11.86 Tecom 407
11.87 Tecore Networks 408
11.88 TEKTELIC Communications 409
11.89 Telrad Networks 411
11.90 Telum 412
11.91 Tropico 413
11.92 Vanu 414
11.93 VNL (Vihaan Networks Limited) 416
11.94 WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation) 417
11.95 WTL (World Telecom Labs) 418
11.96 Wytec International 419
11.97 Z-Com 420

12 Chapter 12: Antenna, DAS, RRH, Repeater & Site Solution Specialists 421
12.1 AAS (Amphenol Antenna Solutions) 421
12.2 Ace Technologies Corporation 423
12.3 AceAxis 424
12.4 ACOME 425
12.5 ADRF (Advanced RF Technologies) 426
12.6 Alpha Wireless 427
12.7 American Tower Corporation 428
12.8 Anertai Communications 429
12.9 Arqiva 430
12.10 Bird Technologies 431
12.11 Black Box Corporation 432
12.12 BlueWaveTel 433
12.13 Boomsense/Bangxun Technology 434
12.14 BTI Wireless 435
12.15 CCI (Communication Components, Inc.) 436
12.16 CCI Systems 438
12.17 Cellcomm Solutions 439
12.18 CellMax Technologies 440
12.19 Cellnex Telecom 441
12.20 Cobham Wireless 442
12.21 Comba Telecom 443
12.22 CommScope 444
12.23 Comtech Korea 446
12.24 Corning 447
12.25 Crown Castle International Corporation 448
12.26 Dali Wireless 449
12.27 DENGYO (Nihon Dengyo Kosaku) 450
12.28 DYNE TECH 451
12.29 Eahison Communication 452
12.30 Ethertronics 453
12.31 ExteNet Systems 454
12.32 Filtronic 455
12.33 Foshan Anderson Communication Equipment 456
12.34 Foxcom 457
12.35 Frog Cellsat 458
12.36 Fujian Helios Technologies 459
12.37 Galtronics Corporation 460
12.38 Gamma Nu 461
12.39 Goodman Networks 462
12.40 GRENTECH 463
12.41 Hansen Technology 464
12.42 Hefei Maniron Electronic and Technology 465
12.43 Hilinks Technology 466
12.44 HUBER+SUHNER 467
12.45 Impower Technology 468
12.46 Innertron 469
12.47 Jiangsu Hengxin Technology 470
12.48 Jiangsu Zhengkai Electronics Technology 471
12.49 JMA Wireless 472
12.50 JQL Electronics 473
12.51 Kaelus 474
12.52 Kathrein-Werke KG 475
12.53 Kisan Telecom 476
12.54 KMW 477
12.55 Maven Wireless 478
12.56 MER Group 479
12.57 Microlab 480
12.58 MTI (Microelectronics Technology, Inc.) 481
12.59 MTI Wireless Edge 482
12.60 Nextivity 483
12.61 OFS 484
12.62 OZC (Optical Zonu Corporation) 485
12.63 Panorama Antennas 486
12.64 Raycap 487
12.65 RF MORECOM KOREA 488
12.66 RF Window 489
12.67 RFS (Radio Frequency Systems) 490
12.68 Rosenberger 491
12.69 R-TRON 492
12.70 Seontech 493
12.71 Shared Access 494
12.72 Shenzhen Huaptec 495
12.73 Shyam Telecom 496
12.74 Skybird Electronic Science & Technology 497
12.75 SOLiD 498
12.76 Sumitomo Electric Industries 499
12.77 Sunwave Solutions 500
12.78 Suzhou Hexagon Communication Technologies 501
12.79 Telnet Redes Inteligentes 502
12.80 TESSCO Technologies 503
12.81 Westell Technologies 504
12.82 Wevercomm 505
12.83 Wilson Electronics 506
12.84 Wuhan Fingu Electronic Technology 507
12.85 Wuhan Gewei Electronic Technologies 508
12.86 Zinwave 509

13 Chapter 13: Carrier Wi-Fi Specialists 510
13.1 4ipnet 510
13.2 ABB 511
13.3 Accuris Networks 512
13.4 Aerohive Networks 513
13.5 Altai Technologies 514
13.6 Alvarion Technologies 515
13.7 Aptilo Networks 516
13.8 Aruba Networks 517
13.9 Autelan 518
13.10 BandwidthX 519
13.11 Browan Communications 520
13.12 BSG Wireless 521
13.13 Carnegie Technologies 522
13.14 D-Link Corporation 523
13.15 Edgewater Wireless Systems 524
13.16 Firetide 525
13.17 Fortinet 526
13.18 GoNet Systems 527
13.19 Handlink Technologies 528
13.20 Kyrio 529
13.21 LigoWave 530
13.22 Linksys 531
13.23 Mojo Networks 532
13.24 NETGEAR 533
13.25 Nomadix 534
13.26 Ruckus Wireless 535
13.27 Senao Networks 536
13.28 Smith Micro Software 537
13.29 Syniverse Technologies 539
13.30 TP-LINK Technologies 540
13.31 Tranzeo Wireless Technologies 541
13.32 TruConnect Technologies 542
13.33 Ubiquiti Networks 543
13.34 Zyxel Communications Corporation 544

14 Chapter 14: Enabling & Complementary Technology Providers 545
14.1 6WIND 545
14.2 Accedian Networks 546
14.3 Accelink Technologies Corporation 547
14.4 Accuver 548
14.5 ADI (Analog Devices Inc.) 549
14.6 ADLINK Technology 550
14.7 Advantech 551
14.8 Affarii Technologies 552
14.9 Airgain 553
14.10 AirHop Communications 554
14.11 Airrays 555
14.12 AKM (Asahi Kasei Microdevices Corporation) 556
14.13 Akoustis Technologies 557
14.14 ALBEDO Telecom 558
14.15 Allot Communications 559
14.16 Altran 560
14.17 Amarisoft 561
14.18 Amdocs 562
14.19 Anritsu Corporation 563
14.20 Aquantia Corporation 564
14.21 Aricent 566
14.22 ARM Holdings 567
14.23 Artesyn Embedded Technologies 568
14.24 Artiza Networks 569
14.25 Astellia 570
14.26 ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute) 571
14.27 ATDI 572
14.28 Azcom Technology 573
14.29 Benetel 574
14.30 Blu Wireless Technology 575
14.31 Blue Danube Systems 576
14.32 BoostEdge 577
14.33 Broadcom 578
14.34 C Squared Systems 580
14.35 Cadence Design Systems 581
14.36 Cambridge Consultants 582
14.37 Cavium 583
14.38 CeedTec 585
14.39 CellMining 586
14.40 Cellwize Wireless Technologies 587
14.41 CelPlan Technologies 588
14.42 Celtro 589
14.43 CEVA 590
14.44 Clavister 591
14.45 Cohere Technologies 592
14.46 Coherent Logix 594
14.47 Collision Communications 595
14.48 Comcores 596
14.49 CommAgility 597
14.50 Creanord 598
14.51 D2 Technologies 599
14.52 Dell Technologies 600
14.53 DigitalGlobe 601
14.54 Direct Beam 602
14.55 eASIC Corporation 603
14.56 EDX Wireless 604
14.57 ENENSYS Technologies 605
14.58 Eoptolink Technology 606
14.59 Ercom 607
14.60 Ethernity Networks 608
14.61 ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea) 610
14.62 EXFO 611
14.63 Expway 612
14.64 Faraday Technology Corporation 613
14.65 Federated Wireless 614
14.66 Finisar Corporation 615
14.67 Flash Networks 616
14.68 Flex Logix Technologies 617
14.69 Forsk 618
14.70 Fraunhofer FOKUS (Institute for Open Communication Systems) 619
14.71 Fraunhofer HHI (Heinrich Hertz Institute) 620
14.72 Furuno Electric 621
14.73 Galgus 622
14.74 GenXComm 623
14.75 GigaLight 624
14.76 GlobalFoundries 625
14.77 HCL Technologies 626
14.78 Hisense 627
14.79 HPE (Hewlett Packard Enterprise) 628
14.80 IBM Corporation 629
14.81 iBwave Solutions 631
14.82 IDT (Integrated Device Technology) 632
14.83 IM Technology 633
14.84 Imec International 634
14.85 Infineon Technologies 635
14.86 InfoVista 636
14.87 InnoLight Technology 637
14.88 Intel Corporation 638
14.89 InterDigital 640
14.90 IP Light 641
14.91 iPosi 642
14.92 IS-Wireless 643
14.93 ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan) 645
14.94 Juniper Networks 646
14.95 Keima 648
14.96 Keysight Technologies 649
14.97 Koonsys Radiocommunications 651
14.98 Kumu Networks 652
14.99 Lattice Semiconductor 653
14.100 Lime Microsystems 654
14.101 Linker Networks 655
14.102 Lumentum 656
14.103 LuxCarta 657
14.104 MACOM Technology Solutions Holdings 658
14.105 Maja Systems 660
14.106 Mathworks 661
14.107 Maxim Integrated 662
14.108 MaxLinear 663
14.109 Mellanox Technologies 664
14.110 Microsemi Corporation 666
14.111 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation 668
14.112 Mobiveil 670
14.113 Molex 671
14.114 Mosaik 673
14.115 Multiwave Sensors 674
14.116 N.A.T. 675
14.117 Nash Technologies 676
14.118 Netonomics 677
14.119 NETSCOUT Systems 678
14.120 NI (National Instruments) 679
14.121 Node-H 681
14.122 Nomor Research 682
14.123 NXP Semiconductors 683
14.124 Octasic 684
14.125 OE Solutions 685
14.126 Optulink 686
14.127 P.I. Works 687
14.128 Panasonic Corporation 688
14.129 Peraso Technologies 690
14.130 Plasma Antennas 691
14.131 Pletronics 692
14.132 Polystar 693
14.133 PRISMA Telecom Testing 694
14.134 Procera Networks 695
14.135 pureLiFi 696
14.136 Qorvo 697
14.137 Qualcomm 698
14.138 Qulsar 700
14.139 Qwilt 701
14.140 RADCOM 702
14.141 Radio Gigabit 703
14.142 Radisys Corporation 704
14.143 Rakon 705
14.144 Ranplan Wireless Network Design 706
14.145 Red Hat 707
14.146 RED Technologies 708
14.147 RF DSP 710
14.148 Rivada Networks 711
14.149 Rohde & Schwarz 713
14.150 Saguna Networks 714
14.151 SAI Technology 715
14.152 Sarokal Test Systems 716
14.153 SAT (Smart Antenna Technologies) 717
14.154 Sevis Systems 718
14.155 SevOne 719
14.156 Silicon Labs (Silicon Laboratories) 721
14.157 SIRADEL 722
14.158 Sivers IMA 723
14.159 Skyworks Solutions 724
14.160 Source Photonics 725
14.161 Space Data Corporation 726
14.162 SRS (Software Radio Systems) 727
14.163 STMicroelectronics 728
14.164 Tata Elxsi 729
14.165 Tech Mahindra 730
14.166 TEOCO Corporation 731
14.167 TI (Texas Instruments) 732
14.168 Tieto Corporation 733
14.169 TSMC (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company) 734
14.170 TTP (The Technology Partnership) 735
14.171 Tulinx 736
14.172 U-blox 737
14.173 Vasona Networks 738
14.174 Vectron International 739
14.175 Vencore Labs 740
14.176 Viavi Solutions 741
14.177 Virtuosys 743
14.178 VMware 744
14.179 WiPro 745
14.180 Wireless Telecom Group 746
14.181 WiSig Networks 747
14.182 XCellAir 748
14.183 Xelic 749
14.184 Xilinx 750

15 Chapter 15: Mobile Backhaul & Fronthaul Solution Providers 752
15.1 3Roam 752
15.2 4RF 753
15.3 Actelis Networks 754
15.4 Actiontec Electronics 755
15.5 Actus Networks 756
15.6 ADTRAN 757
15.7 ADVA Optical Networking 758
15.8 Advantech Wireless 759
15.9 ALAXALA Networks Corporation 760
15.10 Albis-Elcon 761
15.11 ALCOMA 762
15.12 Allied Data Technologies 763
15.13 Allied Telesis 764
15.14 APRESIA Systems 765
15.15 ARRIS International 766
15.16 Avanti Communications Group 767
15.17 Aviat Networks 768
15.18 AVM (AVM Computersysteme Vertriebs) 769
15.19 BluWan 770
15.20 BridgeWave Communications 771
15.21 CableFree (Wireless Excellence) 772
15.22 Calix 773
15.23 Cambium Networks 774
15.24 Canoga Perkins Corporation 775
15.25 Carlson Wireless Technologies 776
15.26 CarrierComm 777
15.27 CBNL (Cambridge Broadband Networks Ltd.) 778
15.28 CCS (Cambridge Communication Systems) 779
15.29 Ceragon Networks 780
15.30 Cielo Networks 781
15.31 Ciena Corporation 782
15.32 Comtech EF Data Corporation 784
15.33 Comtrend Corporation 785
15.34 Corecess 786
15.35 Coriant 787
15.36 DASAN Zhone Solutions 788
15.37 DragonWave 789
15.38 E-Band Communications 790
15.39 EBlink 791
15.40 ECI Telecom 792
15.41 Ekinops 793
15.42 ELVA-1 794
15.43 Eutelsat Communications 795
15.44 Exalt Wireless 796
15.45 Extreme Networks 797
15.46 FastBack Networks 798
15.47 FibroLan 799
15.48 Furukawa Electric Group 800
15.49 Genmix Technology 801
15.50 Gilat Satellite Networks 802
15.51 HFR 803
15.52 Huahuan 804
15.53 Hughes Network Systems 805
15.54 HXI 806
15.55 InCoax 807
15.56 Infinera 808
15.57 InfiNet Wireless 810
15.58 Inmarsat 811
15.59 Intelsat 812
15.60 Intracom Telecom 813
15.61 IPITEK 814
15.62 Iskratel 815
15.63 KEYMILE 816
15.64 Ligado Networks 817
15.65 LightPointe Communications 818
15.66 Lindsay Broadband 819
15.67 Loea Corporation 820
15.68 MAX4G 821
15.69 Microwave Networks 822
15.70 MIMOtech 823
15.71 MRV Communications 824
15.72 Nexcomm Systems 825
15.73 NexxCom Wireless 826
15.74 Omnitron Systems 827
15.75 OneAccess Networks 828
15.76 OneWeb 829
15.77 Patton Electronics 830
15.78 Polewall 831
15.79 Positron 832
15.80 Proxim Wireless Corporation 833
15.81 RACOM 834
15.82 RAD Data Communications 835
15.83 RADWIN 836
15.84 Raisecom 837
15.85 REMEC Broadband Wireless Networks 838
15.86 SAF Tehnika 839
15.87 SES 840
15.88 Shyam Networks 842
15.89 SIAE Microelectronica 843
15.90 Siklu Communication 844
15.91 SkyFiber 845
15.92 SMC Networks 846
15.93 Solectek Corporation 847
15.94 Spectronite 848
15.95 Star Microwave 849
15.96 Tarana Wireless 850
15.97 Telco Systems 851
15.98 Tellion 852
15.99 Tellumat 853
15.100 Telsey 854
15.101 Thuraya Telecommunications Company 855
15.102 Tilgin 856
15.103 Trango Systems 857
15.104 Transition Networks 858
15.105 Ubiquoss 859
15.106 UTStarcom 860
15.107 ViaSat 861
15.108 VT iDirect 862
15.109 Vubiq Networks 863
15.110 Wave1 864
15.111 Wavesight 865
15.112 XAVi Technologies Corporation 866
15.113 Yamaha Corporation 867

16 Chapter 16: Market Analysis and Forecasts 868
16.1 Global Outlook for HetNet Infrastructure Investments 868
16.2 Small Cells 869
16.2.1 Segmentation by Use Case 870
16.2.1.1 Residential 871
16.2.1.2 Enterprise 872
16.2.1.3 Urban 873
16.2.1.4 Rural & Suburban 874
16.2.2 Segmentation by Form Factor 875
16.2.2.1 Femtocells 876
16.2.2.2 Picocells 877
16.2.2.3 Microcells 878
16.2.3 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology 879
16.2.3.1 2G & 3G 880
16.2.3.2 LTE 881
16.2.3.3 5G NR 882
16.2.4 Segmentation by Deployment Model 883
16.2.4.1 Indoor 884
16.2.4.2 Outdoor 885
16.2.5 Segmentation by RAN Architecture 886
16.2.5.1 Standalone 887
16.2.5.2 C-RAN 888
16.3 Small Cell Backhaul 889
16.3.1 Segmentation by Technology 889
16.3.1.1 DSL 890
16.3.1.2 Ethernet 890
16.3.1.3 Microwave 891
16.3.1.4 Millimeter Wave 891
16.3.1.5 Satellite 892
16.3.1.6 Fiber & Others 892
16.4 Carrier Wi-Fi 893
16.4.1 Segmentation by Submarket 893
16.4.1.1 Access Points 894
16.4.1.2 Access Point Controllers 895
16.4.2 Segmentation by Integration Approach 896
16.4.2.1 Standalone Wi-Fi Hotspots 897
16.4.2.2 Managed Wi-Fi Offload 898
16.5 C-RAN 899
16.5.1 Segmentation by Submarket 899
16.5.1.1 RRHs 900
16.5.1.2 BBUs 901
16.5.2 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology 902
16.5.2.1 3G & LTE 904
16.5.2.2 5G NR 907
16.5.3 Segmentation by Deployment Model 910
16.5.3.1 Indoor 911
16.5.3.2 Outdoor 912
16.5.4 Segmentation by Cell Size 913
16.5.4.1 Small Cells 914
16.5.4.2 Macrocells 915
16.6 C-RAN Fronthaul 916
16.6.1 Segmentation by Technology 916
16.6.1.1 Dedicated Fiber 917
16.6.1.2 WDM 917
16.6.1.3 OTN & PON 918
16.6.1.4 Ethernet 918
16.6.1.5 Microwave 919
16.6.1.6 Millimeter Wave 919
16.6.1.7 G.Fast & Others 920
16.7 DAS 921
16.7.1 Segmentation by Deployment Model 922
16.7.1.1 Indoor 923
16.7.1.2 Outdoor 924
16.8 Segmentation by Region 925
16.8.1 Small Cells 926
16.8.2 Small Cell Backhaul 927
16.8.3 Carrier Wi-Fi 927
16.8.4 C-RAN 929
16.8.5 C-RAN Fronthaul 931
16.8.6 DAS 932
16.9 Asia Pacific 933
16.9.1 Small Cells 934
16.9.2 Small Cell Backhaul 935
16.9.3 Carrier Wi-Fi 935
16.9.4 C-RAN 937
16.9.5 C-RAN Fronthaul 939
16.9.6 DAS 940
16.10 Eastern Europe 941
16.10.1 Small Cells 942
16.10.2 Small Cell Backhaul 943
16.10.3 Carrier Wi-Fi 943
16.10.4 C-RAN 945
16.10.5 C-RAN Fronthaul 947
16.10.6 DAS 948
16.11 Latin & Central America 949
16.11.1 Small Cells 950
16.11.2 Small Cell Backhaul 951
16.11.3 Carrier Wi-Fi 951
16.11.4 C-RAN 953
16.11.5 C-RAN Fronthaul 955
16.11.6 DAS 956
16.12 Middle East & Africa 957
16.12.1 Small Cells 958
16.12.2 Small Cell Backhaul 959
16.12.3 Carrier Wi-Fi 959
16.12.4 C-RAN 961
16.12.5 C-RAN Fronthaul 963
16.12.6 DAS 964
16.13 North America 965
16.13.1 Small Cells 966
16.13.2 Small Cell Backhaul 967
16.13.3 Carrier Wi-Fi 967
16.13.4 C-RAN 969
16.13.5 C-RAN Fronthaul 971
16.13.6 DAS 972
16.14 Western Europe 973
16.14.1 Small Cells 974
16.14.2 Small Cell Backhaul 975
16.14.3 Carrier Wi-Fi 975
16.14.4 C-RAN 977
16.14.5 C-RAN Fronthaul 979
16.14.6 DAS 980

17 Chapter 17: Conclusion and Strategic Recommendations 981
17.1 Why is the Market Poised to Grow? 981
17.2 Competitive Industry Landscape: Acquisitions, Alliances & Consolidation 981
17.3 What is the TCO Impact of HetNet Deployments? 983
17.4 The Formula for Success: Selecting the Right Combination of HetNet Technologies 983
17.5 Offloading with TD-LTE Small Cells 984
17.6 The Emergence of Unlicensed & Shared Spectrum Small Cells 984
17.7 What are the Prospects of Cloud RAN & Virtualized Small Cells? 986
17.8 Convergence of C-RAN and Small Cells: Distributing Baseband Intelligence 987
17.9 Accelerating the Transition to Military, Tactical & Public Safety LTE Networks 988
17.10 Standardization Driving RAN & Carrier Wi-Fi Integration 991
17.11 Prospects of Enterprise RAN Deployments 992
17.12 Network Visibility & OAM 993
17.13 Addressing Network Security: IPsec 994
17.14 Vendor Share Analysis 995
17.14.1 Small Cells 995
17.14.2 Carrier Wi-Fi 996
17.14.3 C-RAN 997
17.14.4 DAS 998
17.15 Strategic Recommendations 999
17.15.1 HetNet Infrastructure Vendors 999
17.15.2 Mobile Operators 1000

Figure 1: HetNet Architecture 65
Figure 2: Small Cell Coverage Range Comparison 67
Figure 3: Key Characteristics of Small Cells 68
Figure 4: Mobile Network Data Offloading via Wi-Fi 70
Figure 5: C-RAN Architecture 72
Figure 6: Key RRH & BBU Functions 74
Figure 7: Cloud RAN Concept 75
Figure 8: Passive DAS Configuration 78
Figure 9: Active DAS Configuration 79
Figure 10: Hybrid DAS Configuration 80
Figure 11: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic by Region: 2017 – 2030 (Exabytes) 82
Figure 12: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic by Access Network Technology: 2017 – 2030 (Exabytes) 83
Figure 13: Iuh-Based Small Cell Integration in a 3G Mobile Network 90
Figure 14: Iub-Based Small Cell Integration in a 3G Mobile Network 91
Figure 15: S1 Interface-Based Small Cell Integration in an LTE Network 92
Figure 16: High Level View for NextGen System Architecture 93
Figure 17: CPRI Protocol Layers 94
Figure 18: Global SON Technology Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 107
Figure 19: RAN Functional Split Options 109
Figure 20: Performance Comparison of RAN Functional Split Options 110
Figure 21: vRAN Architecture 114
Figure 22: Virtualized Small Cell Deployment Model 116
Figure 23: TCO Comparison Between Conventional and Virtualized Small Cells ($ per GB) 118
Figure 24: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Virtualization: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 119
Figure 25: LSA (License Shared Access) Regulatory Architecture 122
Figure 26: Transition to UDNs (Ultra-Dense Networks) 134
Figure 27: 5G FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) Deployment Alternatives 136
Figure 28: Conceptual Architecture for End-to-End Network Slicing in Mobile Networks 139
Figure 29: HetNet Industry Roadmap: 2017 – 2030 140
Figure 30: HetNet Value Chain 143
Figure 31: SCaaS (Small Cells-as-a-Service) Provider and Mobile Operator Responsibilities 154
Figure 32: Global SCaaS Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 155
Figure 33: ETSI NFV Architecture 184
Figure 34: 802.11 Family of Standards by Frequency and Range 192
Figure 35: Comparison of IMT-2020 and IMT-Advanced Performance Requirements 196
Figure 36: M-CORD Focus Areas 205
Figure 37: Small Cell Forum's Release Publication Process 207
Figure 38: nFAPI Interfaces 211
Figure 39: China Mobile’s Cloud RAN Vision 238
Figure 40: NTT DoCoMo’s Advanced C-RAN Architecture 255
Figure 41: SK Telecom's SDRAN (Software Defined RAN) Architecture 263
Figure 42: SoftBank's Virtualized Small Cell Trial 265
Figure 43: Sprint's LTE UE Relay 268
Figure 44: Global HetNet Infrastructure Revenue by Submarket: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 868
Figure 45: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 869
Figure 46: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 869
Figure 47: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Use Case: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 870
Figure 48: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Use Case: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 870
Figure 49: Global Residential Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 871
Figure 50: Global Residential Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 871
Figure 51: Global Enterprise Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 872
Figure 52: Global Enterprise Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 872
Figure 53: Global Urban Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 873
Figure 54: Global Urban Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 873
Figure 55: Global Rural & Suburban Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 874
Figure 56: Global Rural & Suburban Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 874
Figure 57: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Form Factor: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 875
Figure 58: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Form Factor: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 875
Figure 59: Global Femtocell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 876
Figure 60: Global Femtocell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 876
Figure 61: Global Picocell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 877
Figure 62: Global Picocell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 877
Figure 63: Global Microcell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 878
Figure 64: Global Microcell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 878
Figure 65: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Air Interface Technology: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 879
Figure 66: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 879
Figure 67: Global 2G & 3G Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 880
Figure 68: Global 2G & 3G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 880
Figure 69: Global LTE Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 881
Figure 70: Global LTE Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 881
Figure 71: Global 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 882
Figure 72: Global 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 882
Figure 73: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Deployment Model: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 883
Figure 74: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Deployment Model: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 883
Figure 75: Global Indoor Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 884
Figure 76: Global Indoor Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 884
Figure 77: Global Outdoor Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 885
Figure 78: Global Outdoor Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 885
Figure 79: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by RAN Architecture: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 886
Figure 80: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by RAN Architecture: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 886
Figure 81: Global Standalone Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 887
Figure 82: Global Standalone Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 887
Figure 83: Global C-RAN Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 888
Figure 84: Global C-RAN Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 888
Figure 85: Global Small Cell Backhaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 889
Figure 86: Global Small Cell Backhaul Revenue by Technology: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 889
Figure 87: Global DSL Small Cell Backhaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 890
Figure 88: Global Ethernet Small Cell Backhaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 890
Figure 89: Global Microwave Small Cell Backhaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 891
Figure 90: Global Millimeter Wave Small Cell Backhaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 891
Figure 91: Global Satellite Small Cell Backhaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 892
Figure 92: Global Fiber & Other Technologies Small Cell Backhaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 892
Figure 93: Global Carrier Wi-Fi Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 893
Figure 94: Global Carrier Wi-Fi Revenue by Submarket: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 893
Figure 95: Global Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 894
Figure 96: Global Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 894
Figure 97: Global Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Controller Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 895
Figure 98: Global Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Controller Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 895
Figure 99: Global Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipments by Integration Approach: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 896
Figure 100: Global Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue by Integration Approach: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 896
Figure 101: Global Standalone Carrier Wi-Fi Hotspot Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 897
Figure 102: Global Standalone Carrier Wi-Fi Hotspot Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 897
Figure 103: Global Managed Carrier Wi-Fi Offload Hotspot Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 898
Figure 104: Global Managed Carrier Wi-Fi Offload Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 898
Figure 105: Global C-RAN Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 899
Figure 106: Global C-RAN Revenue by Submarket: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 899
Figure 107: Global RRH Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 900
Figure 108: Global RRH Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 900
Figure 109: Global C-RAN BBU Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 901
Figure 110: Global C-RAN BBU Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 901
Figure 111: Global C-RAN Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 902
Figure 112: Global RRH Unit Shipments by Air Interface Technology: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 902
Figure 113: Global RRH Unit Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 903
Figure 114: Global C-RAN BBU Shipments by Air Interface Technology: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 903
Figure 115: Global C-RAN BBU Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 904
Figure 116: Global C-RAN Revenue in 3G & LTE Networks: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 904
Figure 117: Global 3G & LTE RRH Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 905
Figure 118: Global 3G & LTE RRH Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 905
Figure 119: Global 3G & LTE C-RAN BBU Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 906
Figure 120: Global 3G & LTE C-RAN BBU Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 906
Figure 121: Global C-RAN Revenue in 5G NR Networks: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 907
Figure 122: Global 5G NR RRH Unit Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 907
Figure 123: Global 5G NR RRH Unit Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 908
Figure 124: Global 5G NR C-RAN BBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 908
Figure 125: Global 5G NR C-RAN BBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million) 909
Figure 126: Global RRH Unit Shipments by Deployment Model: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 910
Figure 127: Global RRH Unit Shipment Revenue by Deployment Model: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 910
Figure 128: Global Indoor RRH Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 911
Figure 129: Global Indoor RRH Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 911
Figure 130: Global Outdoor RRH Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 912
Figure 131: Global Outdoor RRH Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 912
Figure 132: Global RRH Unit Shipments by Cell Size: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 913
Figure 133: Global RRH Unit Shipment Revenue by Cell Size: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 913
Figure 134: Global Small Cell RRH Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 914
Figure 135: Global Small Cell RRH Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 914
Figure 136: Global Macrocell RRH Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 915
Figure 137: Global Macrocell RRH Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 915
Figure 138: Global C-RAN Fronthaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 916
Figure 139: Global C-RAN Fronthaul Revenue by Technology: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 916
Figure 140: Global Dedicated Fiber Fronthaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 917
Figure 141: Global WDM Fronthaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 917
Figure 142: Global OTN & PON Fronthaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 918
Figure 143: Global Ethernet Fronthaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 918
Figure 144: Global Microwave Fronthaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 919
Figure 145: Global Millimeter Wave Fronthaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 919
Figure 146: Global G.Fast & Other Technologies Fronthaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 920
Figure 147: Global DAS Node Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 921
Figure 148: Global DAS Node Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 921
Figure 149: Global DAS Node Unit Shipments by Deployment Model: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 922
Figure 150: Global DAS Node Unit Shipment Revenue by Deployment Model: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 922
Figure 151: Global Indoor DAS Node Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 923
Figure 152: Global Indoor DAS Node Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 923
Figure 153: Global Outdoor DAS Node Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 924
Figure 154: Global Outdoor DAS Node Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 924
Figure 155: HetNet Infrastructure Revenue by Region: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 925
Figure 156: Small Cell Unit Shipments by Region: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 926
Figure 157: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 926
Figure 158: Small Cell Backhaul Revenue by Region: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 927
Figure 159: Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipments by Region: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 927
Figure 160: Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 928
Figure 161: Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Controller Unit Shipments by Region: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 928
Figure 162: Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Controller Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 929
Figure 163: RRH Unit Shipments by Region: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 929
Figure 164: RRH Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 930
Figure 165: C-RAN BBU Shipments by Region: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 930
Figure 166: C-RAN BBU Shipment Revenue by Region: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 931
Figure 167: C-RAN Fronthaul Revenue by Region: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 931
Figure 168: DAS Node Unit Shipments by Region: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 932
Figure 169: DAS Node Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 932
Figure 170: Asia Pacific HetNet Infrastructure Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 933
Figure 171: Asia Pacific Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 934
Figure 172: Asia Pacific Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 934
Figure 173: Asia Pacific Small Cell Backhaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 935
Figure 174: Asia Pacific Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 935
Figure 175: Asia Pacific Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 936
Figure 176: Asia Pacific Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Controller Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 936
Figure 177: Asia Pacific Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Controller Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 937
Figure 178: Asia Pacific RRH Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 937
Figure 179: Asia Pacific RRH Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 938
Figure 180: Asia Pacific C-RAN BBU Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 938
Figure 181: Asia Pacific C-RAN BBU Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 939
Figure 182: Asia Pacific C-RAN Fronthaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 939
Figure 183: Asia Pacific DAS Node Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 940
Figure 184: Asia Pacific DAS Node Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 940
Figure 185: Eastern Europe HetNet Infrastructure Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 941
Figure 186: Eastern Europe Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 942
Figure 187: Eastern Europe Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 942
Figure 188: Eastern Europe Small Cell Backhaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 943
Figure 189: Eastern Europe Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 943
Figure 190: Eastern Europe Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 944
Figure 191: Eastern Europe Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Controller Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 944
Figure 192: Eastern Europe Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Controller Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 945
Figure 193: Eastern Europe RRH Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 945
Figure 194: Eastern Europe RRH Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 946
Figure 195: Eastern Europe C-RAN BBU Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 946
Figure 196: Eastern Europe C-RAN BBU Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 947
Figure 197: Eastern Europe C-RAN Fronthaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 947
Figure 198: Eastern Europe DAS Node Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 948
Figure 199: Eastern Europe DAS Node Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 948
Figure 200: Latin & Central America HetNet Infrastructure Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 949
Figure 201: Latin & Central America Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 950
Figure 202: Latin & Central America Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 950
Figure 203: Latin & Central America Small Cell Backhaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 951
Figure 204: Latin & Central America Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 951
Figure 205: Latin & Central America Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 952
Figure 206: Latin & Central America Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Controller Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 952
Figure 207: Latin & Central America Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Controller Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 953
Figure 208: Latin & Central America RRH Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 953
Figure 209: Latin & Central America RRH Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 954
Figure 210: Latin & Central America C-RAN BBU Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 954
Figure 211: Latin & Central America C-RAN BBU Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 955
Figure 212: Latin & Central America C-RAN Fronthaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 955
Figure 213: Latin & Central America DAS Node Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 956
Figure 214: Latin & Central America DAS Node Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 956
Figure 215: Middle East & Africa HetNet Infrastructure Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 957
Figure 216: Middle East & Africa Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 958
Figure 217: Middle East & Africa Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 958
Figure 218: Middle East & Africa Small Cell Backhaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 959
Figure 219: Middle East & Africa Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 959
Figure 220: Middle East & Africa Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 960
Figure 221: Middle East & Africa Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Controller Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 960
Figure 222: Middle East & Africa Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Controller Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 961
Figure 223: Middle East & Africa RRH Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 961
Figure 224: Middle East & Africa RRH Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 962
Figure 225: Middle East & Africa C-RAN BBU Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 962
Figure 226: Middle East & Africa C-RAN BBU Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 963
Figure 227: Middle East & Africa C-RAN Fronthaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 963
Figure 228: Middle East & Africa DAS Node Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 964
Figure 229: Middle East & Africa DAS Node Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 964
Figure 230: North America HetNet Infrastructure Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 965
Figure 231: North America Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 966
Figure 232: North America Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 966
Figure 233: North America Small Cell Backhaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 967
Figure 234: North America Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 967
Figure 235: North America Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 968
Figure 236: North America Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Controller Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 968
Figure 237: North America Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Controller Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 969
Figure 238: North America RRH Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 969
Figure 239: North America RRH Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 970
Figure 240: North America C-RAN BBU Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 970
Figure 241: North America C-RAN BBU Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 971
Figure 242: North America C-RAN Fronthaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 971
Figure 243: North America DAS Node Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 972
Figure 244: North America DAS Node Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 972
Figure 245: Western Europe HetNet Infrastructure Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 973
Figure 246: Western Europe Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 974
Figure 247: Western Europe Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 974
Figure 248: Western Europe Small Cell Backhaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 975
Figure 249: Western Europe Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 975
Figure 250: Western Europe Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 976
Figure 251: Western Europe Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Controller Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 976
Figure 252: Western Europe Carrier Wi-Fi Access Point Controller Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 977
Figure 253: Western Europe RRH Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 977
Figure 254: Western Europe RRH Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 978
Figure 255: Western Europe C-RAN BBU Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 978
Figure 256: Western Europe C-RAN BBU Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 979
Figure 257: Western Europe C-RAN Fronthaul Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 979
Figure 258: Western Europe DAS Node Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 980
Figure 259: Western Europe DAS Node Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 980
Figure 260: Global Unlicensed & Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 985
Figure 261: Global Unlicensed & Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 985
Figure 262: Global Virtualized Small Cell Revenue by Submarket: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 986
Figure 263: Baseband Processing Distribution Options for C-RAN 987
Figure 264: Global Military, Tactical & Public Safety LTE Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 989
Figure 265: Global Military, Tactical & Public Safety LTE Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 990
Figure 266: Global Dual-Mode Cellular/Wi-Fi Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2017 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 991
Figure 267: Global Enterprise RAN Investments: 2017 – 2030 ($ Million) 993
Figure 268: Global Small Cell Market Share by Vendor: 2016 (%) 995
Figure 269: Global Carrier Wi-Fi Market Share by Vendor: 2016 (%) 996
Figure 270: Global C-RAN Market Share by Vendor: 2016 (%) 997
Figure 271: Global DAS Market Share by Vendor: 2016 (%) 998