Spectrum for Mobile Broadband and Broadcasting


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2025 scenarios for the UHF band & the role of hybrid networks

Terrestrial broadcasting plays a significant role in TV reception... but the UHF (Ultra High Frequency) band is highly coveted by the mobile industry.

Hybrid networks could provide an answer to spectrum scarcity in the UHF band.

This report presents the most likely scenarios for the UHF band and the role of hybrid networks between now and 2025.
Table of Content

1. Executive summary

2. Methodology & definitions
2.1.General methodology of IDATE's reports
2.2.2025 scenarios for the UHF band

3. Introduction

4. Broadcasting spectrum status
4.1.Cable is becoming the leading mode of TV access on the main TV set
4.2.Varying degrees of network digitisation
4.3.Terrestrial TV: slower rate of decline
4.4.Spectrum used by terrestrial broadcast
4.4.1.Broadcast spectrum in the USA
4.4.2.Broadcast spectrum in Europe
4.4.3.Digital Dividend(s) reduce the amount of spectrum allocated to broadcasters
4.5.Satellite TV and radio spectrum
4.5.1.L-Band (1-2 GHz)
4.5.2.S-band (2 GHz)
4.5.3.C-Band (4-8 GHz)
4.5.4.Ku and Ka bands
4.5.5.Satellite TV spectrum in Asia

5. Mobile spectrum status and future needs
5.1.On-going developments
5.1.1.At world level
5.1.2.At European level
5.2.Mobile spectrum today
5.2.1.Overview of spectrum used for mobile broadband
5.2.2.Mobile spectrum below the UHF band
5.2.3.The 700 MHz band
5.3.New frequency bands for mobile broadband
5.4.Could parts of the UHF band become new resources for mobile broadband?
5.4.1.Spectrum/mobile licences valuation
5.4.2.Supplemental Downlink (SDL)

6. Could hybrid networks solve the spectrum scarcity issue in the UHF band?
6.1.Definition of hybrid networks
6.2.Rationale for hybrid networks
6.2.1.Limits of unicast technologies - Comparing unicast and multicast/broadcast delivery
6.2.2.Why / when use broadcast?
6.3.Terrestrial broadcast technologies
6.3.1.Digital television - DVB
6.3.2.eMBMS (evolved Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast services)
6.4.Technological evolution related to video resolution
6.5.Hybrid approaches
6.5.1.Hybrid Broadcast Broadband (HBB)
6.5.2.Tower overlay
6.5.3.H2B2VS
6.5.4.TDF B2M concept
6.6.Chipset and device for hybrid networks perspective
6.6.1.Chipsets
6.6.2.Antennas and band support
6.6.3.Power consumption issue
6.6.4.Set-top boxes and gateways

7. 2025 scenarios for the UHF band in Europe
7.1.Technology roadmap
7.2.Presentation of the scenarios and main assumptions
7.3.Scenario 1 - DTT keeps 470-694 MHz in Europe ('status quo')
7.4.Scenario 2 - Broadcast networks play a more important role towards mobile devices
7.5.Scenario 3 - UHF band mainly used by hybrid networks
7.6.Scenario 4 - UHF band used by mobile networks
7.7.Conclusion

8. Glossary

9. Annex: ASO (Analogue Switch-off) and DTT RoU (Rights of Use)

Table 1:First and second Digital Dividends, worldwide
Table 2:2025 scenarios for the UHF band (470-694 MHz)
Table 3:First and second Digital Dividends, worldwide
Table 4:Satellite frequency bands and related services
Table 5: C-band allocations
Table 6:Ku and Ka-Bands for satellite communications (Europe)
Table 7:Main frequency bands for UMTS/HSPA/LTE deployment – FDD mode
Table 8: Main frequency bands for UMTS/HSPA/LTE deployment – TDD mode
Table 9: Status of the 700 MHz band worldwide
Table 10:3GPP 700 MHz allocations in Regions 2 and 3
Table 11:APT 700 MHz plan – adoption in Asia-Pacific
Table 12: Price (eurocents) per MHz per pop. (for 10 years)
Table 13:DVB-T and DVB-T2 – number of deployments
Table 14:Main characteristics of DVB-T and DVB-T2
Table 15:Overview of MBMS support in 3GPP
Table 16:Resolution, frame rate, encoding, bit rate and adoption for various TV formats
Table 17:Timescales for video coding standards
Table 18:Overview of benefits of Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV
Table 19:2025 scenarios for the UHF band (470-694 MHz)
Table 20:Criteria presented in our scenarios
Table 21:Scenario 1 - DTT keeps 470-694 MHz in Europe ('status quo')
Table 22:Scenario 2 - Broadcast networks play a more important role towards mobile devices
Table 23:Scenario 3 - UHF band mainly used by hybrid networks
Table 24:Scenario 4 - UHF band used by mobile networks

Figure 1:Regional TV access mode split in 2013
Figure 2: Radio spectrum status (2014-2015)
Figure 3: Radio spectrum status (2014-2015)
Figure 4: Change in TV access modes worldwide, 2010-2014
Figure 5:Growth of digital TV penetration worldwide by access mode between 2010 and 2013
Figure 6:Regional TV access mode split in 2013
Figure 7: Penetration rate (% of TVHH) of Terrestrial and Digital Terrestrial TV, by zone (2009-2014)
Figure 8:470-698 MHz frequency bands ITU-R allocations
Figure 9: TV band spectrum before auction (and after DTV transition), 294 MHz
Figure 10: TV band spectrum after auction (and after DTV transition); fewer MHz, markets determined
Figure 11: Broadcast spectrum in Europe
Figure 12: Timetable for the digital switchover in the world
Figure 13:Satellite spectrum overview
Figure 14:Spectrum allocation in the 1900-2200 MHz bands (Europe)
Figure 15: 450 MHz spectrum in Brazil
Figure 16:Potential channelling arrangements in the 700 MHz
Figure 17:700 MHz band in the USA
Figure 18:700 MHz band auction results in Taiwan
Figure 19:APT700 (#28) Lower Duplexer (30 MHz) alignment with Region 1 (EMEA), DD2 spectrum
Figure 20:Overlap between the 700 MHz APT band plan and the 800 MHz band
Figure 21:Proposed prioritisation for mobile broadband frequency bands in the UK
Figure 22:Roadmap for release of more than 500 MHz new spectrum in Sweden
Figure 23:Example of supplemental downlink implementation
Figure 24:A vision of the evolution of the UHF frequency band
Figure 25: Two different approaches to the use of the UHF and VHF bands46
Figure 26: Comparison between multicast/broadcast and unicast viewers vs. data rate needs
Figure 27: How MBMS works
Figure 28:Dynamic allocation of spectrum to unicast and broadcast
Figure 29: SFN operating principle
Figure 30:LTE eMBMS with low power (LPLT)
Figure 31:LTE eMBMS with high power (HPHT)
Figure 32:In-band and out-of-band eMBMS configurations
Figure 33:Everything Everywhere DL unicast traffic
Figure 34: Devices with 4k resolution have four times as many pixels as those with 1080p
Figure 35: Comparison by TDF of broadcasting costs of HPHT vs LPLT
Figure 36:Options for TV delivery in the future
Figure 37:HbbTV features
Figure 38: HbbTV building blocks
Figure 39: Tower Overlay over LTE-Advanced
Figure 40: H2B2VS concept
Figure 41:B2M prototype
Figure 42:LG G Pro include a DMB-T tuner in its South Korean version
Figure 43: Accelerating complexity of new process nodes
Figure 44: Cost per transistor is rising for the first time
Figure 45: Technicolor LTE set-top box
Figure 46: Reliance JIO Android set-top box
Figure 47: Netgem HYBRIDGE DSL and LTE gateway
Figure 48:Expected evolution of technologies for mobile broadband and broadcasting