Snake Robots: Market Shares, Strategy, and Forecasts, Worldwide, 2015 to 2021


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Winter Green Research

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Worldwide snake robot markets are poised to achieve significant growth as the next generation units provide an access and movement mechanism that is unique and useful in a variety of industries. Target markets are for confined spaces.

Confined spaces exist. A confined space exists because of a lack of ability to take apart or dismantle components. Confined spaces exist in nuclear reactors where radiation is dangerous for human, aircraft inside the wings and other small spaces that need to remain intact, the human body which likewise cannot be dismantled easily, industrial processing plants that have containers, underwater environments, ship-building, and space.

Buildings, roads, pipelines and other man-made spaces all have confined spaces. The world is full of awkward confined spaces. Snake-arm robots are self-contained portable devices and extensions to existing systems. These products build on software and hardware technology. Snake robots used for small space access, inside airplane wing access, first responder tasks, and surgery: They are used for going where nothing else can go.

Snake robots provide systems that significantly improve traditional open surgery by consolidating the number of minimally invasive access ports to one and eliminating open surgery. The automated process revolution has come to robotics, used in surgery, industry, ships, airplanes, first responder help, and communications.

Automated process is being implemented via robots. Robots are automating systems, providing significant improvement in the accuracy of surgery and penetration of spaces that were previously impenetrable.

Table of Content

Snake Robots Market Shares and Market Forecasts ES-1
Snake Robot Market Driving Forces ES-1
Snake Robots Market Shares ES-10
Snake Robot Market Forecasts ES-12

1. Snake Robots Market Description and Market Dynamics 1-1
1.1 Snake Robots Are Different 1-1
1.2 Modsnake Robots 1-2
1.2.1 Modsnake Robots Support Human Workers 1-3
1.3 Snakelike Robots Slither over Rough Landscape 1-4
1.4 Snake Robots Locomote 1-4
1.5 Serpentine Robot Applications 1-5
1.5.1 Seizing the Robotics Opportunity 1-6
1.5.2 Modular Self-Reconfiguring Robotic Systems 1-7
1.6 Public Aware That Robotics Have “Arrived” 1-7
1.7 Next Generation Snake Robotics 1-9

2. Snake Robots Market Shares and Market Forecasts 2-1
2.1 Snake Robot Market Driving Forces 2-1
2.2 Snake Robots Market Shares 2-10
2.3 Snake Robot Variety of Applications 2-13
2.3.1 HiBot / Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM 2-13
2.3.2 OC Robotics Snake-Arm for Aircraft Assembly 2-15
2.3.3 Minimally Invasive Equipment Surgical Robots 2-16
2.3.4 Medrobotics Cardioarm Is A Jointed Robot 2-17
2.3.5 SINTEF Robot Snakes Climb Pipes 2-18
2.3.6 University of Southampton. 2-18
2.3.7 CCTV Inspection 2-19
2.4 Snake Robot Market Forecasts 2-19
2.4.1 Snake Robots Market Industry Segments 2-21
2.4.2 Cardiac Surgery Snake Robots Market Forecasts 2-26
2.4.3 Medrobotics Initial Goal Is To Help Avoid Open-Heart Surgery 2-26
2.4.4 Minimally Invasive Surgery Positioning: Medrobotics Requires One Incision At The Bottom Of The Ribs Whereas The Da Vinci Endoscopic Surgical System Could Require Up To Six Incision Points 2-27
2.4.5 Medrobotics Positioning 2-28
2.4.6 Cardiac Surgery Snake Robots Market Forecasts 2-28
2.4.7 Reaching The Un Reachable Snake Robot Market Forecasts 2-30
2.5 Snake Robot Prices 2-31
2.5.1 Inaccessible Spaces - OC Robotics 2-31
2.5.2 Cardiac Surgery - Medrobotics 2-31
2.6 Snake Robots Regional Market Analysis 2-33

3. Snake Robot Product Description 3-1
3.1 OC Robotics 3-1
3.1.1 OC Robotics The Explorer Range 3-2
3.1.2 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Control 3-7
3.1.3 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Simulator 3-7
3.1.4 OC Robotics Snake-Arm for Aircraft Assembly 3-8
3.1.5 OC Robotics Extender Snake Range Of –Motion Robots Reach The Unreachable 3-9
3.1.6 OC Robotics Snake-Arm – 3-12
3.1.7 OC Robotics 3-15
3.1.8 OC Energy & Environment Robotics 3-16
3.1 Medrobotics Techonology 3-17
3.1.1 Medrobotics Medical Devices for Minimally Invasive Surgery 3-18
3.1.2 Medrobotics Flexible Robot Platform 3-18
3.1.3 Medrobotics Snakelike Robots for Heart Surgery 3-19
3.1.4 Medrobotics Cardiac Surgery Snake Robot 3-20
3.1.5 Minimally Invasive Surgery Positioning: 3-24
3.2 University of Michigan All-Terrain Robotics: 3-25
3.2.1 University of Michigan Mobile Robotics Lab Omnitread 3-29
3.2.2 OmniTread Robot Snakes 3-32
3.3 Applied Robotics Technologies, LLC 3-33
3.3.1 The FLEXnav Proprioceptive Position Estimation (PPE) System 3-34
3.3.2 Applied Robotics Technologies Pricing 3-35
3.3.3 Heuristic Drift Reduction for Gyros in Vehicle Tracking Applications 3-36
3.3.4 Applied Robotics Technologies Key Benefits 3-39
3.3.5 Applied Robotics Technologies Pricing 3-39
3.4 NASA Robotic Snakes 3-39
3.5 Canadian Robotics Ltd. 3-40
3.6 Japan Guru World-Class Snake Robotics 3-40
3.7 NTNU and SINTEF in Norway World-Class Snake Robotics 41
3.7.1 Sintef Anna Konda 3-41
3.7.2 Anna Konda Firefighting Snakebot 3-47
3.7.3 Sintef Aiko 3-50
3.7.4 Sintef Pneumosnake 3-51
3.7.5 Sintef PiKo 3-52
3.7.6 Sintef Climbing Robot 3-55
3.7.7 Sintef Robot Learning 3-57
3.7.8 Department of Engineering Cybernetics at NTNU Pneumosnake – Snake Robot With Pneumatic Bellows 3-58
3.8 Hibot Pipetron 3-60
3.8.1 HiBot Expliner 3-61
3.8.2 HiBot ACM-R4H 3-62
3.8.3 HiBot ACM-R5 3-63
3.8.4 Hibot ACM-R5 Amphibious Robosnake 3-64
3.8.5 HiBot Japanese Snake Robot 3-66
3.8.6 Maintaining High Voltage Transmission Lines Using Robotics 3-68
3.8.7 Hydro-Quebec Research Institute (IREQ)LineScout Tele-operated obstacle crossing system 3-68
3.8.8 HiBot Expliner 3-68
3.8.9 America’s Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) 

4. Snake Robot Technology 4-1
4.1 Actuated Joints In A Tight Volume 4-1
4.2 OC Robotics 4-2
4.2.1 OC Robotics Develops Snake-Arm Robots For Confined Spaces 4-3
4.2.2 OC Robotics Snake Arm Actuator Pack 4-5
4.2.3 OC Robotics Snake Arm 4-6
4.2.4 OC Robotics Tool 4-6
4.2.5 OC Robotics Confined Space Piece Manipulation 4-7
4.2.6 OC Robotics Confined Space Reach 4-8
4.3 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Robot Basics 4-10
4.3.1 OC Robotics Snake Robot Curvature – 4-15
4.3.2 OC Robotics Protective Skins 4-16
4.3.3 OC Robotics Manages Hazardous Environments – 4-17
4.3.4 OC Robotics Software - SoftSnake 4-18
4.3.5 OC Robotics PipeSnake 4-18
4.3.6 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Robots Aircraft Assembly 4-22
4.4 CISST ERC Snake Robot 4-27
4.5 Bio-Robotics Lab 4-28
4.6 Carnegie Mellon Robotics Institute 4-31
4.7 Sintef 4-32
4.7.1 Sintef Aiko Snake Robot With Electric Motors 4-34
4.8 Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM Land and Amphibious Robot Snake 4-36
4.8.1 Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM-R5 Control System 4-37
4.8.2 Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM Slim Slime Robot 4-38
4.8.3 Hirose Fukushima Lab pneumatically-driven Slime Robot 4-40
4.8.4 Hirose-Fukushima Lab at Tokyo Institute of Technology Amphibious Snake Robot - ACM-R5 4-49
4.9 DrGavin S7 Snake Robot Rectilinear Locomotion 4-50
4.9.1 Nottingham Trent University 4-54
4.10 Israeli Army Deploys Robot Snakes 4-55
4.10.1 Israeli Military Develops Robot Snake Bomb Hirose Fukushima Lab 4-57
4.11 Merlin Robotics, Nottingham Trent University Robot Snake Dance 4-60
4.12 Snake Bot at Carnegie Mellon 4-61
4.12.1 Carnegie Mellon Conforming Loop 4-64
4.13 CardioArm Biomedicine Snakelike Robots for Heart Surgery 4-68
4.13.1 Snake Robot Helps Wounded Soldiers 4-70
4.14 Hughes Aircraft R7 Early Robotic Snake 4-72
4.15 British 'Serpentine Spy' 4-73
4.16 IDF Spy Robot Snake 4-74
4.17 SINTEF Robot Snakes Climb Pipes 4-75
4.17.1 SINTEF Anna Konda 4-76
4.18 Climbing Snakes Biorobotics Lab, Carnegie Mellon University 4-79
4.19 NASA Snake-bot VS InnoSTAR 4-81
4.20 Applied Robotics Technologies, LLC 4-82

5. Snake Robots Company Profiles 5-1
5.1 Applied Robotics Technologies, LLC 5-1
5.2 HiBot 5-1
5.3 Medrobotics 5-2
5.3.1 Medrobotics $10 Million Financing From Hercules 5-2
5.1.1 Medrobotics Several Generations Of Snake Robot Platforms 5-3
5.1.2 Medrobotics Advances Clinical Development of Snake Robot for Surgery 5-4
5.1.3 Medrobotics Positioning 5-4
5.1.4 Medrobotics Cardiac Surgery Gold Standard 5-5
5.1.5 Medrobotics Snake Robot Technologies Used In Range Of Surgical And Interventional Applications 5-56
5.1.6 Medrobotics Technology & Research Center 5-8
5.4 OC Robotics 5-9
5.4.1 OC Robotics Technology & Innovation 5-9
5.4.2 OC Robotics Robots Extend Reach Of Manual Process 5-11
5.4.3 OC Robotics A CANDU Snake-Arm Robot 5-13
5.4.4 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Robots 5-14
5.5 University of Michigan Mobile Robotics Lab Omnitread 5-17
5.6 Tokyo Institute of Technology Research Laboratories 5-20
5.6.1 Tokyo Institute of Technology / Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM 5-22
5.6.2 Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM Hibot 5-22
5.7 Sintef 5-23
5.8 Selected List of University and Research Snake Robots 5-25

Snake Robots Executive Summary 38
Snake Robot Market Driving Forces 38
Snake Robots Market Shares 49
Snake Robot Market Forecasts 51

1. Snake Robots Market Description and Market Dynamics 53
1.1 Snake Robots Automate Process 53
1.2 Modsnake Robots 54
1.2.1 Modsnake Robots Support Human Workers 55
1.3 Snakelike Robots Slither over Rough Landscape 56
1.4 Snake Robots Locomote 56
1.5 Serpentine Robot Applications 57
1.5.1 Seizing the Robotics Opportunity 58
1.5.2 Modular Self-Reconfiguring Robotic Systems 59
1.6 Mobile Robotics 59
1.7 Next Generation Snake Robotics 61

2. Snake Robots Market Shares and Market Forecasts 62
2.1 Snake Robot Market Driving Forces 62
2.2 Snake Robots Market Shares 73
2.2.1 HiBot / Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM 76
2.2.2 OC Robotics Snake-Arm for Aircraft Assembly 78
2.2.3 Sarcos Snake Robot Magnetic Track 79
2.2.4 Sarcos Robot Inspection Of Ship Ballast Tanks 80
2.2.5 Medrobotics Minimally Invasive Equipment Surgical Robots 80
2.2.6 Medrobotics Positioning 81
2.2.7 Medrobotics highly articulated robotic probes 81
2.2.8 SINTEF Robot Snakes Climb Pipes 84
2.3 Snake Robot Market Forecasts 84
2.3.1 Industrial, Medical, and Military Snake Robot Market Segment Forecasts 90
2.3.2 Nuclear, Oil & Gas Snake Robots Markets 95
2.3.3 Construction and Mining Snake Robots Market 99
2.3.1 Surgery Snake Robots Market Forecasts 102
2.3.2 Medical Surgical Snake Robot Market Forecasts 104
2.3.3 Military Snake Robot Market Forecasts 105
2.3.4 Aerospace Snake Robot Market Forecasts 107
2.3.5 Confined Space and High Wire Snake Robot Market Forecasts 113
2.4 Snake Robot Prices 116
2.4.1 Inaccessible Spaces - OC Robotics 116
2.4.2 Medrobotics 116
2.5 Snake Robots Regional Market Analysis 118

3. Snake Robot Product Description 121
3.1 OC Robotics 121
3.1.1 OC Robotics Addresses Confined Space Problem 121
3.1.2 OC Robotics LaserSnake for Decommissioning Complex Structures In Hazardous, Confined Nuclear Environments 124
3.1.3 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Robots For Aircraft Assembly 126
3.1.4 OCRobotics Snake Robot Aerospace Applications 128
3.1.5 OCRobotics Snake-Arm Tools 129
3.1.6 OCRobotics Aerospace Applications 131
3.1.7 OC Robotics Snake-Arms For Security 134
3.1.8 OC Robotics Snake-Arms for Construction 135
3.1.9 OC Robotics Snake-Arms for Industrial Application 136
3.1.10 OC Robotics The Explorer Range 137
3.1.11 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Control 142
3.1.12 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Simulator 143
3.1.13 OC Robotics Snake-Arm for Aircraft Assembly 143
3.1.14 OC Robotics Extender Snake Range Of –Motion Robots Reach The Unreachable 144
3.1.15 OC Robotics Snake-Arm – 148
3.1.16 OC Robotics 149
3.1.17 OC Energy & Environment Robotics 150
3.2 Sarcos Guardian S Snake Robot 152
3.2.1 Sarcos Snake Robot Magnetic Track 157
3.2.2 Sarcos Guardian S Snake Robot Climbing Ferromagnetic Surface Pole 158
3.2.3 Sarcos Guardian S Snake Robot Camera Applications 161
3.2.4 Sarcos Guardian S Snake Robot Ship Systems Inspection Applications 163
3.2.5 Sarcos Robot Inspection Of Ship Ballast Tanks 163
3.2.6 Sarcos Robotic Arm For Inspecting On Board Water Tanks 164
3.2.7 Sarcos Guardian S Snake Robot Traverse Capabilities 168
3.3 Medrobotics Technology 169
3.3.1 Medrobotics Flex® Retractor 171
3.3.2 Medrobotics Flexible Robot Platform 172
3.3.3 Medrobotics Snakelike Robots for Oropharynx, Hypopharynx and Larynx Surgery173
3.4 University of Michigan All-Terrain Robotics: 176
3.4.1 University of Michigan Mobile Robotics Lab Omnitread 180
3.4.2 OmniTread Robot Snakes 182
3.5 Applied Robotics Technologies, LLC 184
3.5.1 The FLEXnav Proprioceptive Position Estimation (PPE) System 184
3.5.2 Applied Robotics Technologies Pricing 185
3.5.3 Heuristic Drift Reduction for Gyros in Vehicle Tracking Applications 186
3.5.4 Applied Robotics Technologies Key Benefits 189
3.5.5 Applied Robotics Technologies Pricing 189
3.6 NASA Robotic Snakes 189
3.7 Canadian Robotics Ltd. 190
3.8 Japan Guru World-Class Snake Robotics 190
3.9 Hibot Thesbot 191
3.9.1 Hibot Pipetron 192
3.9.2 HiBot Expliner 192
3.9.3 HiBot ACM-R4H 194
3.9.4 HiBot ACM-R5 194
3.9.5 Hibot ACM-R5 Amphibious Robosnake 196
3.9.6 HiBot Japanese Snake Robot 197
3.9.7 Maintaining High Voltage Transmission Lines Using Robotics 199
3.9.8 Hydro-Quebec Research Institute (IREQ)LineScout tele-operated obstacle crossing system 199
3.9.9 HiBot Expliner 200
3.9.10 America’s Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Autonomous Version 200
3.10 Tesla Unveils Snakelike Robot Charger for Electric Cars 201
3.11 Unifire Robotic Nozzles 202
3.11.1 Unifire Advanced, Fully Automatic Robotic Nozzle System 208
3.12 University of Southampton. 210
3.13 CCTV Inspection 210

4. Snake Robot Technology 212
4.1 Actuated Joints In A Tight Volume 212
4.2 OC Robotics 213
4.2.1 OC Robotics Develops Snake-Arm Robots For Confined Spaces 214
4.2.2 OC Robotics Snake Arm Actuator Pack 216
4.2.3 OC Robotics Snake Arm 217
4.2.4 OC Robotics Tool 217
4.2.5 OC Robotics Confined Space Piece Manipulation 218
4.2.6 OC Robotics Confined Space Reach 219
4.3 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Robot Basics 221
4.3.1 OC Robotics Snake Robot Curvature – 225
4.3.2 OC Robotics Protective Skins 227
4.3.3 OC Robotics Manages Hazardous Environments – 228
4.3.4 OC Robotics Software - SoftSnake 229
4.3.5 OC Robotics PipeSnake 230
4.3.6 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Robots Aircraft Assembly 234
4.4 CISST ERC Snake Robot 239
4.5 Bio-Robotics Lab 240
4.6 Carnegie Mellon Robotics Institute 243
4.7 Sintef 244
4.7.1 Sintef Aiko Snake Robot With Electric Motors 246
4.8 NTNU and SINTEF in Norway World-Class Snake Robotics 248
4.8.1 Sintef Anna Konda 248
4.8.2 Anna Konda Firefighting Snakebot 254
4.8.3 Sintef Aiko 257
4.8.4 Sintef Pneumosnake 258
4.8.5 Sintef PiKo 259
4.8.6 Sintef Climbing Robot 262
4.8.7 Sintef Robot Learning 264
4.8.8 Department of Engineering Cybernetics at NTNU Pneumosnake –Snake Robot With Pneumatic Bellows 265
4.9 Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM Land and Amphibious Robot Snake 268
4.9.1 Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM-R5 Control System 269
4.9.2 Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM Slim Slime Robot 270
4.9.3 Hirose Fukushima Lab Pneumatically-Driven Slime Robot 272
4.9.4 Hirose-Fukushima Lab at Tokyo Institute of Technology Amphibious Snake Robot - ACM-R5 281
4.10 DrGavin S7 Snake Robot Rectilinear Locomotion 282
4.10.1 Nottingham Trent University 286
4.11 Israeli Army Deploys Robot Snakes 287
4.11.1 Israeli Military Develops Robot Snake Bomb Hirose Fukushima Lab 289
4.12 Merlin Robotics, Nottingham Trent University Robot Snake Dance 292
4.13 Snake Bot at Carnegie Mellon 293
4.13.1 Carnegie Mellon Conforming Loop 295
4.14 CardioArm Biomedicine Snakelike Robots for Heart Surgery 298
4.14.1 Snake Robot Helps Wounded Soldiers 301
4.15 Hughes Aircraft R7 Early Robotic Snake 303
4.16 British 'Serpentine Spy' 304
4.17 IDF Spy Robot Snake 305
4.18 ASA Snake-bot VS InnoSTAR 306
4.19 Applied Robotics Technologies, LLC 307

5. Snake Robots Company Profiles 310
5.1 Applied Robotics Technologies, LLC 310
5.2 Fanuc 310
5.2.1 FANUC Corporation 320
5.2.2 Fanuc Revenue 322
5.2.3 Fanuc Joint Venture With General Electric in the FA field 324
5.3 HiBot 325
5.3.1 HiBot Inspects High-Voltage Transmission Lines 325
5.3.2 HiBot Snake Robot 325
5.4 Kawasaki Robotics 326
5.5 Kuka 328
5.5.1 KUKA Dominant Customer Segment, Automotive Industry 329
5.5.2 Kuka Revenue 331
5.5.3 Kuka Competition 334
5.5.4 Kuka Innovative Technology 336
5.5.5 Kuka Well Positioned With A Broad Product Portfolio In Markets With Attractive Growth Prospects 337
5.5.6 Kuka Strategy 337
5.5.7 Kuka Corporate Policy 339
5.5.8 Kuka Customers 345
5.5.9 KUKA Acquires 51% of Reis Robotics 347
5.5.10 Kuka Positioning in Robotics and Systems 348
5.6 Medrobotics 351
5.6.1 Medrobotics Closes On $10 Million Financing 353
5.6.2 Medrobotics Several Generations Of Snake Robot Platforms 354
5.6.3 Medrobotics Advances Clinical Development of Snake Robot for Surgery 354
5.6.4 Medrobotics Positioning 355
5.6.5 Medrobotics Cardiac Surgery Gold Standard 355
5.6.6 Medrobotics Snake Robot Technologies For Use In A Wide Range Of Surgical And Interventional Applications 357
5.6.7 Medrobotics Technology & Research Center 359
5.7 Mitsubishi 360
5.7.1 Mitsubishi Electric Corp. 361
5.8 OC Robotics 363
5.8.1 OC Robotics Technology & Innovation 364
5.8.2 OC Robotics Robots Extend Reach Of Manual Process 366
5.8.3 OC Robotics A CANDU Snake-Arm Robot 367
5.8.4 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Robots 368
5.9 Sarcos Corp 370
5.9.1 Sarcos Dexterous, Tele-Operated Robotic Systems 371
5.9.2 Sarcos Snake Robot Unmanned Ground Vehicle 372
5.9.3 Sarcos Robots Inspection of Ballast Tanks on Ships 374
5.9.4 Sarcos Guardian S Robotic Systems Replace Current Dangerous And Expensive Inspections 375
5.10 Sintef 376
5.11 Tesla 377
5.12 Tokyo Institute of Technology Research Laboratories 380
5.12.1 Tokyo Institute of Technology / Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM 382
5.12.2 Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM Hibot 382
5.13 Unifire 383
5.14 University of Michigan Mobile Robotics Lab Omnitread 385
5.15 Yaskawa 388
5.15.1 Yaskawa Revenue 389
5.15.2 Yaskawa Business 391
5.15.3 YASKAWA Electric Motion Control 392
5.15.4 YASKAWA Electric Robotics 393
5.15.5 YASKAWA Electric System Engineering 393
5.15.6 YASKAWA Electric Information Technology 393
5.15.7 Yaskawa / Motoman 393
5.15.8 Yaskawa Motoman 394
5.16 Selected Robot Companies 395
5.16.1 Selected Robot Companies 422
5.17 Selected List of University and Research Snake Robots 452


Table ES-1 39 Snake Robot Market Driving Forces 39
Table ES-2 40 Confined Spaces That Need Snake Shapes To Achieve Access 40
Figure ES-3 40 Snake-Arm Robot Controls 40
Figure ES-4 46 Nose Following Snake Robots 46
Figure ES-5 46 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Simulator 46
Table ES-6 48 Confined Spaces 48
Figure ES-7 50 Snake Robots Market Shares, Dollars, Worldwide, 2014 50
Figure ES-8 52 Snake Robot Market Forecasts, Dollars, Worldwide, 2015-2021 52
Figure 1-1 54 Mod Snake Robots Snake Robots Are Different. 54
Table 1-2 58 Serpentine Robot Applications 58
Table 2-1 62 Snake Robot Market Driving Forces 62
Table 2-2 63 Confined Spaces That Need Snake Shapes To Achieve Access 63
Figure 2-3 64 Snake-Arm Robot Controls 64
Figure 2-4 70 Nose Following Snake Robots 70
Figure 2-5 70 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Simulator 70
Table 2-6 72 Confined Spaces 72
Figure 2-7 74 Snake Robots Market Shares, Dollars, Worldwide, 2014 74
Figure 2-8 75 Snake Robots Market Shares, Dollars, Worldwide, 2014 75
Figure 2-9 76 HiBot Inspection of High-Voltage Power Lines 76
Figure 2-10 77 HiBot Balances on High-Voltage Power Lines 77
Figure 2-11 83 Medrobotics Snake Robot for Surgery 83
Figure 2-12 85 Snake Robot Market Forecasts, Dollars, Worldwide, 2015-2021 85
Table 2-13 86 Snake Robot Markets, Dollars, Worldwide, 2015-2021 86
Figure 2-14 87 HiBot 87
Figure 2-15 88 Snake Robots Total Market Forecasts, Units, Worldwide,2015-2021 88 
Table 2-16 89 Snake Robot Market Shipments, Units, Worldwide, 2015-2021 89
Figure 2-17 91 Industrial Snake Robot Total Market Forecasts Dollars, Worldwide, 2015-2021 91
Figure 2-18 92 Snake Robots Market Industry Segments, Energy, Construction, Mining, Aerospace, Confined Space and High Wire, Dollars, Worldwide, 2015-2021 92
Figure 2-19 93 Snake Robots Market Segments, Dollars, Worldwide, 2015-2021 93
Figure 2-20 94 Snake Robots Market Segments, Percent, Worldwide, 2015-2021 94
Figure 2-21 95 Nuclear, Oil & Gas Snake Robots Market Forecasts, Dollars, Worldwide, 2015- 2021 95
Figure 2-22 97 Nuclear and Oil & Gas Snake Robot Total Market Forecasts Dollars, Worldwide, 2015-2021 97 
Figure 2-23 99 Construction and Mining Snake Robots Market Forecasts, Units, Worldwide, 2015-2021 99
Figure 2-24 100 Construction and Mining Snake Robot Market Forecasts Dollars, Worldwide, 2015-2021 100
Figure 2-25 103 Surgery Snake Robots Market Forecasts, Units, Worldwide, 2015-2021 103
Figure 2-26 104 Medical Surgical Snake Robot Market Forecasts Dollars, Worldwide, 2015-2021 104
Figure 2-27 105 Military Snake Robots Market Forecasts, Units, Worldwide, 2015-2021 105
Figure 2-28 106 Military Snake Robot Market Forecasts Dollars, Worldwide, 2015-2021 106
Figure 2-29 107 Aerospace Snake Robots Market Forecasts, Dollars, Worldwide, 2015-2021 107
Figure 2-30 109 Aerospace Snake Robot Total Market Forecasts Dollars, Worldwide, 2015-2021 109
Table 2-31 111 Aerospace Snake Robot Functions 111
Table 2-32 112 Snake Robots Adopt Capabilities Of Industrial Robots 112
Figure 2-33 113 Confined Space / High Wire Snake Robots Market Forecasts, Units, Worldwide, 2015-2021 113 
Figure 2-34 114 Confined Space and High Wire Snake Robot Market Forecasts Dollars, Worldwide, 2015-2021 114
Figure 2-35 118 Snake Robots Regional Market Segments, Dollars, 2014 118
Table 2-36 119 Snake Robots Regional Market Segments, 2014 119
Table 3-1 122 Snake-Arm Robot Solution Profile 122
Table 3-2 123 OC Robotics Confined Space Target Markets 123
Figure 3-3 124 OC Robotics LaserSnake 124
Figure 3-4 126 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Robots For Aircraft Assembly 126
Table 3-5 130 OCRobotics Snake-Arm Tools Features 130
Table 3-6 131 OCRobotics Interchangeable End Effectors 131
Table 3-7 132 OCRobotics Snake Arm Aerospace Applications 132
Table 3-8 133 OCRobotics Snake Arm Aerospace Tasks That Could Be Considered For Aircraft Manufacture 133
Figure 3-9 134 OC Robotics Snake-arms for security 134
Figure 3-10 135 OC Robotics Snake-Arms for Construction 135
Figure 3-12 137 OC Robotics Explorer Range 137
Figure 3-13 138 OC Robotics Explorer Range User Interface 138
Figure 3-14 139 OC Robotics Explorer Range Actuator Pack 139
Figure 3-15 140 OC Robotics Explorer Range Snake Arm 140
Figure 3-16 141 OC Robotics Explorer Arm Extensions 141
Figure 3-17 145 OC Robotics Extender Snake Range Of –Motion 145
Figure 3-18 146 OC Robotics Extender Models and Payloads 146
Figure 3-18 (Continued) 147 OC Robotics Extender Models and Payloads 147
Figure 3-19 148 OC Robotics Arms in Confined Spaces 148
Figure 3-20 152 Sarcos Guardian S Snake Robot Container Maneuvering 152
Table 3-21 154 Sarcos Guardian S Snake Robot Target Markets 154
Figure 3-22 155 Sarcos Guardian S Snake Robot Exoskeleton 155
Figure 3-23 155 Sarcos Guardian S Snake Robot 156
Table 3-24 157 Snake Robot Magnetic Track Functions 157
Table 3-25 157 Snake Magnetic Robot Structures Tracked 157
Figure 3-26 158 Sarcos Guardian S Snake Robot Climbing Ferromagnetic Surface Pole 158
Table 3-27 159 Sarcos Guardian S Snake Robot Intelligence Applications 159
Table 3-28 160 Sarcos Guardian S Snake Robot Military Applications 160
Table 3-29 161 Sarcos Guardian S Snake Robot Camera Applications 161
Table 3-30 162 Sarcos Guardian S Snake Robot Counter-Mine Warfare Applications 162
Table 3-31 163 Sarcos Guardian S Snake Robot Ship Systems Inspection Applications 163
Figure 3-32 164 Sarcos Robot Inspection Of Ship Ballast Tanks On Board 164
Figure 3-33 166 Sarcos Ballast Water Tanks Inspections 166
Figure 3-34 168 Sarcos Guardian S Snake Robot Traverse Capabilities 168
Figure 3-35 171 Medrobotics Flex® Retractor 171
Figure 3-36 174 Medrobotics Snakelike Robot Tested for Heart Surgery 174
Table 3-37 175 Medrobotics Medical Field Target Markets 175
Table 3-38 176 University of Michigan Omnitread Innovations: 176
Figure 3-39 177 University of Michigan Omnitread 177
Table 3-40 178 University of Michigan Mobile Omnitread Robotic Motion Capabilities 178
Table 3-41 181 University of Michigan Mobile Robotics Lab Omnitread Robotic Motion Capabilities 181
Figure 3-42 182 Omnitread robot snakes 182
Figure 3-43 184 FLEXnav PPE System 184
Table 3-44 186 FLEXnav PPE System Features 186
Figure 3-45 188 Applied Robotics Technologies Typical Experimental Results: Position Errors After 120-160 M Travel On Moderately Rugged Terrain 188
Figure 3-46 191 HiBot Thesbot 191
Figure 3-47 192 HiBot 192
Figure 3-48 193 HiBot Expliner 193
Figure 3-49 194 HiBot ACM-R4H 194
Figure 3-50 195 HiBot ACM-R5 195
Figure 3-51 196 Hibot ACM-R5 Amphibious Robosnake 196
Figure 3-52 197 Hibot ACM-R5 Amphibious Robosnake 197
Figure 3-53 201 Tesla Snake Robot Car Charger 201
Table 3-54 202 Unifire Robotic Nozzles 202
Figure 3-55 203 Unifire Nozzles Articulated Robots 203
Table 3-56 204 Robotic Nozzles Benefits 204
Table 3-57 206 Robotic Nozzles Applications 206
Figure 3-58 207 Unifire Robotic Nozzles 207
Figure 3-59 209 Unifire Networked Robotic Nozzle System 209
Figure 4-1 213 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Robots Remote Car Inspection 213
Figure 4-2 215 Robotics Develops Snake-Arm Robots For Confined Spaces 215
Figure 4-3 216 OC Robotics Actuator Pack 216
Figure 4-4 217 OC Robotics Snake Arm 217
Figure 4-5 218 OC Robotics Snake Robot Tool 218
Table 4-6 219 OC Robotics Able To Snake Into Cluttered Environments 219
Figure 4-7 220 OC Robotics Extend Robot Arms With Elbows 220
Figure 4-8 221 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Robot Basics 221
Figure 4-9 226 OC Robotics Snake Curvatures 226
Figure 4-10 227 OC Robotics Protective Skins 227
Figure 4-11 228 OC Robotics Arm Materials Allow For Radiation, Heat, Vacuum, Magnetic Fields, And Operations In Explosive Atmospheres 228
Figure 4-12 230 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Robots Extend Reach Of The Human 230
Figure 4-13 232 OC Robotics PipeSnake 232
Figure 4-14 233 OC Robotics Snake Robot Angle of Curvature 233
Figure 4-15 236 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Robots Aircraft 236
Figure 4-16 237 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Robot Extender 237
Figure 4-17 238 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Robot Made Up Of A Large Number Of Segments 238
Figure 4-18 239 CISST ERC Snake Robot 239
Figure 4-19 240 Bio-Robotics Lab Snake Robots that Climb 240
Figure 4-20 241 Bio-Robotics Lab Snake Robot Climbing 241
Figure 4-21 243 Carnegie Mellon Robotics Institute Door Opening Robot 243
Figure 4-22 244 Sintef Snake Robot Designed To Be Used To Put Out Fires 244
Figure 4-23 245 Sintef Anna Konda Robot Equipped With Nozzles 245
Figure 4-24 246 Sintef Aiko Snake Robot With Electric Motors 246
Figure 2-25 247 Sintef’s Snake Robot 247
Figure 4-26 249 Sintef Anna Konda 249
Table 4-27 250 Anna KondaTechnical data 250
Figure 4-28 252 Sintef’s Anna Konda Snake Robot 252
Table 4-29 254 Sintef’s Anna Konda Firefighting Snakebot 254
Table 4-30 255 SINTEF Firefighting Snakebot Components 255
Figure 4-31 256 Norwegian Company Sintef Anna Konda 256
Table 4-32 257 SINTEF Firefighting Snakebot Target Markets 257
Figure 4-33 257 Sintef Aiko 257
Table 4-34 258 SINTEF / NTNU Aiko Technical data 258
Figure 4-35 259 Sintef Pneumosnake 259
Figure 4-36 262 Sintef PiKo 262
Figure 4-37 263 Sintef PiKo Robot For Vertical Movement 263
Figure 4-38 265 Department of Engineering Cybernetics at NTNU Pneumosnake – Snake Robot With Pneumatic Bellows 265
Table 4-39 266 Department of Engineering Cybernetics at NTNU Technical data 266
Table 4-40 267 NTNU / SINTEF Next Generation Robotics for Norwegian Industry 267
Figure 4-41 268 Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM-R5 - Amphibious Robot Snake 268
Figure 4-42 270 Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM Slim Slime Robot 270
Table 4-43 271 Slim Slime ACM Robot Features 271
Table 4-44 271 Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM Slim Slime Robot Applications 271
Figure 4-45 273 Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM Serpentine Propulsion 273
Figure 4-46 274 Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM xSlim Slime Robot With a Child 274
Figure 4-47 275 Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM Slim Slime Robot Module Construction 275
Figure 4-48 276 Tokyo Institute of Technology / Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM Snake Like Trackers 276
Figure 4-49 277 Tokyo Institute of Technology / Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM Snake Like Creep Motion Of Snake,Pedal Waves Of Snail And Limpet, Lateral Rolling, And Pivot
Turn277 
Figure 4-50 278 Hirose Fukushima Lab ACM Robot Snake Modular Construction 278
Figure 4-51 279 Snake Robot Hirose-Fukushima Lab at Tokyo Institute of Technology 279
Figure 4-52 280 Hirose-Fukushima Lab at Tokyo Institute of Technology ACM-R5 280
Figure 4-53 281 Robot Hirose-Fukushima Lab at Tokyo Institute of Technology Amphibious Snake Robot - ACM-R5 281
Table 4-54 282 DrGavin S7 Rectilinear Locomotion Snake Robot 282
Figure 4-55 283 DrGavin S7 Sensor Suite That Includes Detectors 283
Figure 4-56 284 DrGavin S5 Robot Snake Control System Electronics Functional Diagram 284
Figure 4-57 285 DrGavin Robot Snake 285
Figure 4-58 286 Merlin Robotics / Nottingham Trent University Air Robot Snake 286
Figure 4-59 287 Israeli Army Deploys Robot Snakes 287
Figure 4-60 289 Israeli Army Bomb Hirose Fukushima Lab Robot Snakes 289
Figure 4-61 291 Israeli Snake Robot 291
Figure 4-62 292 Merlin Robotics, Nottingham Trent University Robot Snake Dance 292
Figure 4-63 293 Snake Bot at the Carnegie Mellon 293
Figure 4-64 293 Carnegie Mellon Modular Bot 293
Figure 4-65 294 Carnegie Mellon Modular Bot Tricycle Riding 294
Figure 4-66 296 Carnegie Mellon Obstacle Climbing 296
Figure 4-67 296 Carnegie Mellon Fence Climbing 296
Figure 4-68 297 Carnegie Mellon Stair Climbing 297
Figure 4-69 299 CardioArm Biomedicine Snakelike Robots for Heart Surgery 299
Figure 4-70 301 Snake Robot Helps Wounded Soldiers 301
Figure 4-70 303 Hughes Aircraft R7 Early Robotic Snake 303
Figure 4-71 304 British Military Reconnaissance Robot Can Be Dropped From A Helicopter 304
Figure 4-72 305 University of Southampton Anaconda Rubber Snake Generates Power From Waves 305
Figure 4-73 306 InnoSTAR™ Robotic Kit 306
Figure 4-74 308 Applied Robotics Technologies, LLC Fiber Optic Gyros Function Of Rate Of Rotation And Temperature 308
Figure 5-1 313 Fanuc Welding Robot 313
Figure 5-2 315 Fanuc Industrial Robots 315
Figure 5-3 316 Fanuc Global Network 316
Figure 5-4 320 Fanuc’s Organization 320
Figure 5-5 323 Fanuc Revenue 323
Figure 5-6 324 Fanuc Revenue 324
Figure 5-7 338 Kuka Vision for Expansion of Robotic Markets 338
Figure 5-8 340 Kuka Customers 340
Figure 5-9 342 Kuka Regional (10) and Segment (7) Focus 342
Figure 5-10 344 Kuka Positioning with Smart Tools 344
Figure 5-11 348 Kuka Positioning in Robotics and Systems 348
Table 5-12 351 Medrobotics Positioning 2015 351
Table 5-13 356 Medrobotics Cardiac Surgery Improvements 356
Table 5-14 358 Medrobotics Snake Robot Technologies For Use In A Wide Range Of Surgical And Interventional Applications 358
Table 5-15 359 Medrobotics Snake Robot Technologies Specialist Areas Served 359
Table 5-16 362 Mitsubishi Electric FA Core Competencies 362
Figure 5-17 365 OC Robotics 365
Figure 5-18 367 OC Robotics Conducts Inspections Within CANDU Reactors 367
Figure 5-19 369 OC Robotics Snake-Arm Robot Technology 369
Table 5-20 371 Sarcos Robotics Systems Positioning 371
Table 5-21 372 Sarcos Robotics Systems Target Markets 372
Table 5-22 373 Sarcos Snake Robot Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) Target Markets 373
Figure 5-23 381 Tokyo Institute of Technology Electrochemistry Spextroscopic Techniquees 381
Figure 5-24 384 Unifire Robotic Nozzle Technologies 384
Table 5-25 386 University of Michigan Mobile Robotics Lab Areas Of Interest 386
Figure 5-26 392 YASKAWA Electric Group Businesses 392